锘?!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> 鏅€氳瘽- 鐧剧杈炴捣 - 杩蜂綘璇枃缃?/title> <meta name="keywords" content="鏅€氳瘽" /> <meta name="description" content="鏅€氳瘽 鏅€氳瘽 浠ヤ腑鍥藉寳浜闊充负鏍囧噯闊炽€佷互鍖楁柟璇濅负鍩虹鏂硅█銆佷互鍏歌寖鐨勭幇浠g櫧璇濇枃钁椾綔涓鸿娉曡鑼冪殑鐜颁唬姹夋皯鏃忓叡鍚岃銆備腑鍗庝汉姘戝叡鍜屽浗寤虹珛浠ュ悗锛屼负浜嗗姞寮烘斂娌汇€佺粡娴庛€佹枃鍖栫殑缁熶竴锛屼负浜嗛『鍒╄繘琛岀ぞ浼氫富涔夊缓璁撅紝鍐冲畾鎶? /> <link href="style/default/hdwiki.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="all"/> <script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript" src="lang/zh/front.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery.dialog-0.8.min.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript" src="js/login.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript"> $.dialog.setConfig('base', 'http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/style/default'); var g_isLogin, g_isUcenter=false, g_forward = '',g_api_url='', g_regulars = '', g_uname_minlength, g_uname_maxlength; g_regulars = ""; g_isLogin = false; g_搜刮引擎优化_prefix = ""; g_搜刮引擎优化_suffix = ".html"; g_uname_minlength = "4"||3; g_uname_maxlength = "15"||15; </script> </head> <body> <script src="https://www.2qbb.com/common.js" language="javascript" type="text/javascript"></script> <!--缂栬緫寮傚父涓柇锛屼笅娆$櫥褰曟彁绀?-> <ul id="login" class="w-950 bor_b-ccc"> <li class="l bor_no"><a href="http://www.knowgenes.com" target="_blank">璇枃涓荤珯</a></li> <li class="l bor_no"><a href="http://www.knowgenes.com/zidian" target="_blank">鍦ㄧ嚎瀛楀吀</a></li> <li name="login"><a href="index.php?user-login">鐧诲綍</a></li> <li name="register" class="bor_no"><a href="index.php?user-register" >娉ㄥ唽</a></li> <li class="bor_no help"><a href="index.php?doc-innerlink-%E5%B8%AE%E5%8A%A9">甯姪</a></li> </ul> <div class="bg_book"> <a href="http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki" id="logo"><img alt="杩蜂綘璇枃鐧剧杈炴捣" width="220px" src="style/default/logo.gif"/></a> <form name="searchform" method="post" action="index.php?search-kw"> <p id="search"> <input name="searchtext" class="btn_txt" maxlength="80" size="42" value="鏅€氳瘽" type="text"/> <input name="default" value="杩涘叆璇嶆潯" tabindex="2" class="btn_inp enter_doc" onclick="document.searchform.action='index.php?search-default';document.searchform.submit();" type="button"/> <input name="full" value="1" tabindex="1" type="hidden"/> <input name="search" value="鎼?绱? tabindex="1" class="btn_inp sea_doc" type="submit"/> <a href="index.php?search-fulltext" class="sea_advanced link_black">楂樼骇鎼滅储</a> <label>鐑棬鎼滅储锛? <a href="index.php?doc-innerlink-%E6%A0%A1%E8%BD%A6" target="_blank">鏍¤溅</a> <a href="index.php?doc-innerlink-%E7%BB%99%E5%8A%9B" target="_blank">缁欏姏</a> <a href="index.php?doc-innerlink-%E5%BC%9F%E5%AD%90%E8%A7%84" target="_blank">寮熷瓙瑙?/a> <a href="index.php?doc-innerlink-%E6%B5%B7%E5%BA%95%E4%B8%A4%E4%B8%87%E9%87%8C" target="_blank">娴峰簳涓や竾閲?/a> <a href="index.php?doc-innerlink-%E4%B8%83%E5%A4%95%E8%8A%82" target="_blank">涓冨鑺?/a> <a href="index.php?doc-innerlink-3G" target="_blank">3G</a> </label> </p> </form> <div id="nav" class="w-950 bor_b-ccc"> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki">鐧剧棣栭〉</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/category.html">鐧剧鍒嗙被</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/list.html">鎺掕姒?/a></li> <li><a href="http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/pic-piclist.html">鍥剧墖鐧剧</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/gift.html">绀煎搧鍟嗗簵</a></li> <li><a href="plugin-docnews.html">缃戠珯鍔ㄦ€?/a></li> </ul> <label><a href="doc-create.html">鍒涘缓璇嶆潯</a><a href="doc-sandbox.html">缂栬緫瀹為獙</a></label> </div> </div> <!--ad start --> <div class="ad" id="advlist_0"> <script type="text/javascript"> /*960*90锛屽垱寤轰簬2010-11-21*/ var cpro_id = 'u287721';</script> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://cpro.百度.com/cpro/ui/c.js"></script></div> <!--ad end --><div class="w-950 hd_map"> <a href="http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki">鐧剧杈炴捣</a> >>鎵€灞炲垎绫?>><span id="catenavi"> <a href="category-view-4.html">瀛︿範 </a>   </span> </div> <div class="l w-710 o-v"> <h1 class="title_thema"> <span id='doctitle'>鏅€氳瘽</span> <label id='auditmsg'> </label> <label id='lockimage'> </label> </h1> <div class="subordinate"> <p class="cate_open"> <span class="bold">鏍囩:</span> <a href="index.php?search-tag-鏅€氳瘽" name="tag">鏅€氳瘽</a> </p> <span class="editteam"> <a href="javascript:void(0)" id="ding" onclick="vote(this)">椤禰<span>5</span>]</a> <a class="share_link" id="share_link">鍒嗕韩鍒?/a> <a href="comment-view-199.html">鍙戣〃璇勮(0)</a> <a id="editImage" href="doc-edit-199.html" class="edit_ct" onclick="return doc_is_locked()">缂栬緫璇嶆潯</a> <label class="share_btn" id="share_btn" style="display:none"> <input id="sitename" name="sitename" value="鐧剧杈炴捣" type="hidden"> <input id="firstimg" name="firstimg" value="" type="hidden"> <a href="javascript:void(0)" onclick="postToWb();return false;" style="background:url(http://v.t.qq.com/share/images/s/weiboicon16.png) no-repeat left 0px;">鑵捐寰崥</a><script type="text/javascript"> function postToWb(){ var _t = encodeURI("鏅€氳瘽:鏅€氳瘽鏅€氳瘽浠ヤ腑鍥藉寳浜闊充负鏍囧噯闊炽€佷互鍖楁柟璇濅负鍩虹鏂硅█銆佷互鍏歌寖鐨勭幇浠g櫧璇濇枃钁椾綔涓鸿娉曡鑼冪殑鐜颁唬姹夋皯鏃忓叡鍚岃銆備腑鍗庝汉姘戝叡鍜屽浗寤虹珛浠ュ悗锛屼负浜嗗姞寮烘斂娌汇€佺粡娴庛€佹枃鍖栫殑缁熶竴锛屼负浜嗛『鍒╄繘琛岀ぞ浼氫富涔夊缓璁撅紝鍐?.."); var _url = encodeURIComponent(document.location); var _appkey = encodeURI("aa6cb794b12c41c29d6490f4624b77a9");//浣犱粠鑵捐鑾峰緱鐨刟ppkey var _pic = encodeURI("");//锛堜緥濡傦細var _pic='鍥剧墖url1|鍥剧墖url2|鍥剧墖url3....锛? var _site = '';//浣犵殑缃戠珯鍦板潃 var _u = 'http://v.t.qq.com/share/share.php?url='+_url+'&appkey='+_appkey+'&site='+_site+'&pic='+_pic+'&title='+_t; window.open( _u,'', 'width=700, height=680, top=0, left=0, toolbar=no, menubar=no, scrollbars=no, location=yes, resizable=no, status=no' ); } </script> <a href="#" class="kaixin001">寮€蹇?01</a> <a href="#" class="renren">浜轰汉缃?/a> <a href="#" class="sina_blog">鏂版氮寰崥</a> </label> <script language="javascript"src='js/share.js'></script> </span> </div> <div class="nav_model"> </div> <div class="ad" id="advlist_3_1"> <script type="text/javascript">/*728*90锛屽垱寤轰簬2010-11-21*/ var cpro_id = 'u287726';</script><script src="http://cpro.百度.com/cpro/ui/c.js" type="text/javascript"></script> </div> <div class="content_1 wordcut"> <div class="content_topp"> <DIV style="WIDTH: 140px" class="img img_r"><A title=鏅€氳瘽 href="http://tupian.hudong.com/a0_23_08_01200000228632117400888585523_jpg.html" target=_blank><IMG title=鏅€氳瘽 alt=鏅€氳瘽 src="http://a0.att.hudong.com/23/08/01200000228632117400888585523_s.jpg"></A><strong>鏅€氳瘽</strong></DIV> </div> <fieldset id="catalog"> <legend><a name='section'>鐩綍</a></legend> <ul id="hidesection"> <li >• <a href="doc-view-199.html#1">鏅€氳瘽</a> </li> <li >• <a href="doc-view-199.html#3">鏅€氳瘽鐨勬紨鍙樺巻鍙?/a> </li> <li >• <a href="doc-view-199.html#5">杞诲0</a> </li> <li >• <a href="doc-view-199.html#7">瀹规槗娣锋穯鐨勫彂闊?/a> </li> </ul> </fieldset> <h3><span class="texts">鏅€氳瘽</span><a name="1" href="doc-editsection-199-1.html" >缂栬緫鏈</a><a href="doc-view-199.html#section">鍥炵洰褰?/a></h3> <div class="content_topp"> <P align=left>浠ヤ腑鍥藉寳浜闊充负鏍囧噯闊炽€佷互鍖楁柟璇濅负鍩虹鏂硅█銆佷互鍏歌寖鐨勭幇浠g櫧璇濇枃钁椾綔涓鸿娉曡鑼冪殑鐜颁唬姹夋皯鏃忓叡鍚岃銆?A class=innerlink title=涓崕浜烘皯鍏卞拰鍥?href=javascript:innerlink('%E4%B8%AD%E5%8D%8E%E4%BA%BA%E6%B0%91%E5%85%B1%E5%92%8C%E5%9B%BD')>涓崕浜烘皯鍏卞拰鍥?/A>寤虹珛浠ュ悗锛屼负浜嗗姞寮烘斂娌汇€佺粡娴庛€佹枃鍖栫殑缁熶竴锛屼负浜嗛『鍒╄繘琛岀ぞ浼氫富涔夊缓璁撅紝鍐冲畾鎶婃眽姘戞棌鐨勫叡鍚岃鍔犱互瑙勮寖锛屽ぇ鍔涙帹骞裤€?955骞村彫寮€鍏ㄥ浗鏂囧瓧鏀归潻浼氳鍜岀幇浠f眽璇鑼冮棶棰樺鏈細璁紝纭畾浜嗘皯鏃忓叡鍚岃鐨勬爣鍑嗭紝缁欐櫘閫氳瘽涓嬩簡绉戝鐨勫畾涔夛紝鍒跺畾浜嗘帹骞跨殑鏂归拡銆佹斂绛栧拰鎺柦銆傛櫘閫氳瘽鐨勬爣鍑嗗寘鎷闊炽€佽瘝姹囥€佽娉?涓柟闈€傛櫘閫氳瘽浠ュ寳浜闊充负鏍囧噯闊炽€?A class=innerlink title=鍖椾含 href=javascript:innerlink('%E5%8C%97%E4%BA%AC')>鍖椾含</A>璇煶涓昏鎸囧寳浜瘽鐨勮闊崇郴缁燂紝涓嶅寘鎷釜鍒殑鍦熼煶閮ㄥ垎銆備互鍖楁柟璇濅负鍩虹鏂硅█锛屽寳鏂硅瘽鐨勮瘝姹囨槸鏅€氳瘽璇嶆眹鐨勫熀纭€鍜屼富瑕佹潵婧愩€備互鍏歌寖鐨勭幇浠g櫧璇濇枃钁椾綔涓鸿娉曡鑼冿紝鎵€璋撯€滃吀鑼冣€濈殑钁椾綔锛屾槸鎸囧叿鏈夊箍娉涗唬琛ㄦ€х殑钁椾綔锛屽鍥藉鐨勬硶寰嬫潯鏂囷紝鎶ュ垔鐨勭ぞ璁猴紝浠ュ強鐜颁唬钁椾綔瀹剁殑浣滃搧绛夈€傜幇浠g櫧璇濇枃钁椾綔鏄浉瀵规棭鏈熺殑鐧借瘽鏂囪憲浣滄潵璁茬殑銆傛櫘閫氳瘽鏄幇浠f眽璇殑鏍囧噯璇紝鏄幇闃舵姹夋皯鏃忚瑷€缁熶竴鐨勫熀纭€锛屾槸鐜颁唬姹夎鍙戝睍鐨勪富娴佸拰鏂瑰悜銆?nbsp;</P> </div> <h3><span class="texts">鏅€氳瘽鐨勬紨鍙樺巻鍙?/span><a name="3" href="doc-editsection-199-3.html" >缂栬緫鏈</a><a href="doc-view-199.html#section">鍥炵洰褰?/a></h3> <div class="content_topp"> <P align=left>鈥滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濊繖涓瘝鏃╁湪娓呮湯灏卞嚭鐜颁簡銆?902骞达紝瀛﹁€呭惔姹濈憾鍘绘棩鏈€冨療锛屾棩鏈汉鏇惧悜浠栧缓璁腑鍥藉簲璇ユ帹琛屽浗璇暀鑲叉潵缁熶竴璇█銆傚湪璋堣瘽涓氨鏇炬彁鍒扳€滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濊繖涓€鍚嶇О銆?904骞达紝杩戜唬濂抽潻鍛藉绉嬬懢鐣欏鏃ユ湰鏃讹紝鏇句笌鐣欐棩瀛︾敓缁勭粐浜嗕竴涓€滄紨璇磋仈绯讳細鈥濓紝鎷熷畾浜嗕竴浠界畝绔狅紝鍦ㄨ繖浠界畝绔犱腑灏卞嚭鐜颁簡鈥滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濈殑鍚嶇О銆?906骞达紝鐮旂┒鍒囬煶瀛楃殑瀛﹁€呮湵鏂囩唺鍦ㄣ€婃睙鑻忔柊瀛楁瘝銆嬩竴涔︿腑鎶婃眽璇垎涓衡€滃浗鏂団€?鏂囪█鏂?銆佲€滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濆拰鈥滀織璇€濓紙鏂硅█锛夛紝浠栦笉浠呮彁鍑轰簡鈥滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濈殑鍚嶇О锛岃€屼笖鏄庣‘鍦扮粰鈥滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濅笅浜嗗畾涔夛細鈥滃悇鐪侀€氳涔嬭瘽銆傗€濅笂涓栫邯涓夊崄骞翠唬鐬跨鐧藉湪銆婇闂ㄥ叧浠ュ鐨勬垬浜夈€嬩竴鏂囦腑鎻愬嚭锛屸€滄枃瀛﹂潻鍛界殑浠诲姟锛屽喅涓嶆浜庡垱閫犲嚭涓€浜涙柊寮忕殑璇楁瓕灏忚鍜屾垙鍓э紝瀹冨簲褰撴浛涓浗寤虹珛鐜颁唬鐨勬櫘閫氳瘽鐨勬枃鑵斻€傗€濃€滅幇浠f櫘閫氳瘽鐨勬柊涓浗鏂囷紝搴斿綋鏄範鎯笂涓浗鍚勫湴鏂瑰叡鍚屼娇鐢ㄧ殑锛岀幇浠b€樹汉璇濃€欑殑锛屽闊宠妭鐨勶紝鏈夌粨灏剧殑鈥︹€︹€?/P> <P align=left>姹夎鑷彜浠ユ潵鏈夋柟瑷€鍚屾椂涔熸湁鍏卞悓璇█銆傛牴鎹巻鍙茶杞斤紝鏄ョ鏃跺€欏瓟澶瓙鏃朵唬绠″叡鍚岃鍙泤瑷€銆傞泤瑷€浠ユ礇闃抽泤瑷€涓烘爣鍑嗐€傚瓟澶瓙鏈変笁鍗冨寰掑紵鏉ヨ嚜褰撴椂鐨勫悇鍦帮紝鍙や唬涔熸湁鏂硅█锛屽悇鍦扮殑瀛︾敓閮借鑷繁鐨勬柟瑷€锛屽瓟澶瓙璁茶鐨勬椂鍊欐€庝箞鑳藉璁╂潵鑷悇鍦扮殑瀛︾敓閮藉惉寰楁槑鐧藉憿锛熷洜涓哄綋鏃舵湁鍏卞悓璇彨闆呰█锛屾墍浠ュ瓟澶瓙鍦ㄨ瀛︾殑鏃跺€欑敤闆呰█锛岃繖鏍蜂氦闄呮病鏈変粈涔堥殰纰嶃€?nbsp; <BR><BR>鍦ㄦ眽浠o紝鍏卞悓璇湁浜嗚繘涓€姝ョ殑鍙戝睍锛屽綋鏃剁鍏卞悓璇彨鍋氶€氳銆傚悇鍦拌涓嶅悓鏂硅█鐨勪汉鍙互鐢ㄩ€氳杩涜浜ら檯锛岃繖鏄彜浠g殑鎯呭喌銆?<BR></P> <P align=left>鏅嬩唬浜旇儭涔卞崕銆佽。鍐犲崡娓′互寰岋紝涓師闆呴煶鍗楃Щ锛屼綔涓轰腑鍥藉畼鏂硅瑷€鐨勫畼璇濋€愭笎鍒嗕负鍗楀寳涓ゆ敮銆傚寳鏂逛互娲涢槼闆呰█涓烘爣鍑嗛煶锛屽崡鏂逛互寤哄悍闆呰█涓烘爣鍑嗛煶銆傛礇闃抽泤瑷€灞炰簬涓師璇濓紝寤哄悍闆呰█灞炰簬鍚磋銆備富娴佷笂浠ュ崡鏂圭殑寤哄悍闆呰█涓烘缁熴€傞殝鏈濈粺涓€涓浗瀹氶兘闀垮畨锛岀紪钁椼€婂垏闊点€嬶紝闊崇郴涓洪噾闄甸泤闊充负涓伙紝鍙傝€冩礇闃抽泤闊崇殑缁煎悎绯荤粺锛屽洜浠ュ崡鏈濅负姝g粺鏀挎潈銆傞殝鏈濇湯鏈燂紝鎵窞鎴愪负涓浗缁忔祹鏈€绻佽崳鐨勫湴鍖猴紝鍥犳锛屾壃宸炲惔闊充篃鏇炬垚涓哄崡鏂归泤瑷€鐨勪唬琛紝浣嗘槸锛屾病鏈夊緱鍒板畼鏂硅瑷€鐨勫湴浣嶃€?<BR><BR>闄嶅強鍞愬畫锛屽嵆浣垮湪鍖楁柟锛屽彛澶磋瑷€涓庝功闈㈣瑷€鐨勫樊鍒樉钁楀澶т簡銆傚瘜涓藉爞鐨囩殑鍞愯瘲涓紝宸茬粡閲囩撼浜嗕竴浜涘綋鏃剁殑鍙h銆傚攼鏈濆紑濮嬶紝姹熷崡鎴愪负涓浗缁忔祹鏈€鍙戣揪鐨勫湴鍖猴紝鍥犳姹熷崡鐨勮嫃宸炲惔闊充篃鎴愪负鍗楁柟闆呰█鐨勪竴绉嶉€氳璇€傜敱浜庢斂娌讳腑蹇冨湪闀垮畨锛岄暱瀹夎瘽灞炰簬涓師璇濄€傚洜姝わ紝闀垮畨闆呰█涔熸槸鍖楁柟闆呰█鐨勬爣鍑嗛煶銆傚埌浜嗗畫浠o紝姹夋枃鏇村嚭鐜颁簡鍙h鍖栫殑鍊惧悜銆傝憲鍚嶇殑澶ф€濇兂瀹舵湵鐔圭殑寮熷瓙鎵€缂栫殑銆婃湵瀛愯绫汇€嬶紝鍦ㄥ緢澶х▼搴︿笂淇濈暀浜嗘湵鐔逛娇鐢ㄥ畫浠e彛璇鎺堝拰璋堣瘽鐨勫師璨屻€傝繖璇佹槑鍗充娇鍍忎粬閭f牱鏂囧寲淇吇寰堥珮鐨勫+浜猴紝灏界杩樻槸鐢ㄥ彜鏂囧啓浣滐紝浣嗗钩鏃ョ殑瑷€璋堬紝鐢氳嚦璁叉巿鍎掑缁忓吀锛屼篃宸茬粡涓嶅彲鑳藉儚鍏竷鐧惧勾鍓嶇殑鍖楁柟搴舵皯閭f牱锛屸€滃叾杈炲鍙よ鈥濓紝浣嗕粬浣滀负鈥滆涔︿汉鈥濓紝璇寸殑杩樻槸娲涢槼璇濄€?nbsp;鍙婅嚦鍗楀畫锛岄閮藉缓鍦ㄤ复瀹夛紝鍥犳锛屼复瀹夐泤瑷€涔熸垚涓烘爣鍑嗛煶鐨勪竴绉嶃€備复瀹夐泤瑷€灞炰簬鍚磋锛屼絾鏄复瀹夐泤瑷€涓湁寰堝涓師璇濈殑鐥曡抗锛岀洿鑷充粖澶╃殑鏉窞璇濅篃鏈変腑鍘熻瘽鐨勭棔杩广€?<BR><BR>鍏冧唬鏃讹紝棣栭兘鍦ㄥぇ閮斤紝鍥犳锛屽ぇ閮借瘽涔熸槸涓€绉嶉€氳璇€傜敱浜庡厓鏈濈殑缁熸不鑰呮槸钂欏彜浜猴紝涓嶇啛鎮夋眽鏃忔枃鍖栵紝姹夎鐨勯€氳璇户鎵夸簡瀹嬩唬鐨勫崡鏂归泤瑷€銆?<BR><BR>鏄庝唬鐨勬椂鍊欙紝鍗椾含鐢变簬鎴樹簤绛夊姩涔憋紝鍗椾含璇濅粠鍚磋锛堝崡鏂归泤瑷€锛夎浆鍙樹负姹熸樊瀹樿瘽銆傛槑浠d互鍗椾含璇濅负姝g粺锛屽崡浜瘽涔熸槸鍗楁柟瀹樿瘽鐨勪唬琛ㄣ€傚悗鏉ヨ縼閮藉寳浜紝鍖椾含璇濅篃鏈変竴瀹氶€氳搴︺€傛槑浠e寳浜瘽鏄湪鍏冨ぇ閮芥棫鍖楀钩璇濈殑鍩虹涓婏紝鍜岀Щ灞呭寳浜殑鍗椾含绉绘皯鐨勫崡浜瘽铻嶅悎鍚庡舰鎴愶紝鍒版竻浠e張鍙楀埌婊¤鐨勫奖鍝嶃€傛睙鍗楃殑鍚撮煶寮€濮嬩互鑻忓窞鐧借瘽涓轰富瑕佷唬琛ㄣ€傚惔闊崇户鎵夸簡鍗楁柟闆呰█鐨勫湴浣嶏紝骞朵笖浠ュ綋鍦板己澶х殑缁忔祹瀹炲姏鎴愪负涓浗閫氳鐨勮瑷€涔嬩竴銆傜帇澹€у湪銆婂箍蹇楃粠銆嬩腑璇达細鈥滃杽鎿嶆捣鍐呬笂涓嬭繘閫€涔嬫潈锛岃嫃浜轰互涓洪泤鑰咃紝鍒欏洓鏂归殢涔嬭€岄泤锛屼織鑰咃紝鍒欓殢鑰屼織涔嬨€傗€濓紝鍚撮煶鏈€娴佽鐨勬椂鍊欙紝涓婅嚦澹ぇ澶紝涓嬭嚦姝屽浠ヨ鑻忕櫧涓鸿崳銆傚拰瀹樻柟鈥滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濅含鐧界浉瀵硅€岃█锛岃嫃宸炵櫧璇濆湪褰撴椂绀句細鍦颁綅鐩稿綋浜庢皯闂寸殑鈥滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濄€傚綋鏃惰秺鍗楀墽銆佹槅鏇层€佽瘎寮归兘浠ヨ嫃鐧戒负鏍囧噯闊筹紝鐢氳嚦涓€寮€濮嬬殑浜墽閮芥浘浣跨敤杩囪嫃鐧姐€?<BR><BR>娓呬唬涓€寮€濮嬶紝浠嶇劧浠ュ崡浜畼璇濅负姝g粺銆傞泹姝e勾闂达紙1728骞达級娓呰姝i煶棣嗭紝纭珛鍖椾含瀹樿瘽涓哄畼鏂瑰湴浣嶃€傚埌浜?9涓栫邯鏈篃灏辨槸娓呮湞鏈勾锛屼腑鍥界殑褰㈠娍鍙戠敓浜嗗緢澶у彉鍖栵紝鍙楀埌瑗挎柟瀛︽湳鎬濇兂鐨勫奖鍝嶏紝鐗瑰埆鍙楀埌鏃ユ湰鐨勫奖鍝嶃€傛棩鏈湪鏄庢不缁存柊鍓嶅悗澶у姏鎺ㄥ箍鏃ユ湰璇殑鍏卞悓璇紝鏃ユ湰浜烘妸鏃ユ湰璇殑姘戞棌鍏卞悓璇彨鍋氬浗璇€傚浗璇繖涓瘝鏈潵鏄腑鍥藉彜浠d竴鏈功鐨勫悕瀛楋紝鏃ユ湰浜烘妸鍥借褰撳仛姘戞棌鍏卞悓璇殑鍚嶇О銆?9涓栫邯鏈腑鍥界殑鏂囧寲鐢熸椿鍙戠敓寰堝ぇ鍙樺寲锛屽浗璇繖涓悕璇嶅緱鍒颁紶鎾€?nbsp;鐢变簬澶钩澶╁浗鐨勬垬浜夛紝姹熷崡缁忔祹寮€濮嬭“钀斤紝鍚撮煶寮€濮嬪け鍘讳簡鏍囧噯闊崇殑鍦颁綅銆傝繖鏍凤紝鍖椾含鐧借瘽寮€濮嬫垚涓哄敮涓€鐨勬爣鍑嗛煶銆傛皯鍥藉垵鏈燂紝鍖椾含瀹樿瘽琚畾涓哄浗璇€?<BR><BR>杈涗亥闈╁懡涔嬪悗锛屼负浜嗗彂灞曚腑鍥界殑缁忔祹銆佹枃鍖栵紝鍦ㄤ腑鍥戒篃寮€濮嬫帹骞垮浗璇€傚浗璇繖涓瘝鍦ㄦ皯鍥芥椂鏈熷緱鍒板綋鏃舵斂搴滅殑鎵胯锛屾垚涓烘皯鏃忓叡鍚岃鐨勪竴涓寮忕О鍛笺€?920骞村浗璇帹琛屼笉鍒颁袱骞村氨鐖嗗彂涓€鍦哄綋鏃跺悕涔嬩负鈥滀含鍥戒箣浜夆€濓紙鎸囦含闊冲拰鍥介煶锛夌殑澶ц京璁恒€傞棶棰樼殑璧峰洜灏卞湪浜庡浗璇爣鍑嗛煶銆傚洜涓哄湪鎺ㄨ鍥借鐨勭儹娼腑锛岀粡甯稿彂鐢熶含闊虫暀鍛樺拰鍥介煶鏁欏憳浜掔浉浜夊惖鐨勪簨銆備粬浠殑鍥借鍚捣鏉ュ緢涓嶄竴鏍凤紝寰堝瀛楃殑璇婚煶涔熶笉缁熶竴锛屾暀鐨勪汉瑙夊緱闅炬暀锛屽鐨勪汉瑙夊緱寰堥毦瀛︺€備簬鏄湁浜猴紙鍗椾含楂樺笀寮犲+涓€锛夊彂琛ㄦ枃绔狅紝涓诲紶鈥滄敞闊冲瓧姣嶈繛甯﹀浗闊抽兘瑕佹牴鏈敼閫犫€濓紝搴斺€滃厛鐢辨暀鑲查儴鍏竷鍚堜簬瀛︾悊鐨勬爣鍑嗚瀹氫箟锛屼互鑷冲皯鍙楀埌涓瓑鏁欒偛鐨勫寳浜湰鍦颁汉鐨勮瘽涓哄浗璇殑鏍囧噯鈥濄€傝繖涓富寮犲緱鍒拌澶氫汉鐨勬敮鎸侊紝鐗瑰埆鍦ㄥ崡鏂瑰紩璧蜂簡寮虹儓鐨勫弽鍝嶏紝绾风悍寮€浼氬搷搴旓紝鐢氳嚦閫氳繃鍐宠锛氣€滀笉鎵胯鍥介煶锛屼富寮犱互浜煶涓烘爣鍑嗛煶鈥濓紝鈥滆鏁欒偛閮ㄥ箍寰佸悇鏂归潰鐨勬剰瑙侊紝瀹氬寳浜闊充负鏍囧噯闊斥€濄€傚悗鏉ワ紝1913骞粹€滆闊崇粺涓€浼氣€濇嫙瀹氱殑鈥滀互浜煶涓轰富锛屽吋椤惧崡鍖椻€濈殑鑰佸浗闊冲氨琚慨鏀逛负鈥滅函浠ュ寳浜瘽涓烘爣鍑嗏€濈殑鏂板浗闊充簡銆?932骞存牴鎹柊鍥介煶缂栫簜鐨勩€婂浗闊冲父鐢ㄥ瓧姹囥€嬬敱姘戝浗鏀垮簻鏁欒偛閮ㄥ叕甯冿紝鍦ㄣ€婂瓧姹囥€嬬殑搴忚█涓張瀵瑰浗闊充互鍖椾含闊充负鏍囧噯鐨勫惈涔夊仛浜嗚繘涓€姝ョ殑璇存槑锛屽嵆鈥溾€濇墍璋撲互鐜颁唬鐨勭‘鍖楀钩闊虫爣鍑嗛煶鑰咃紝绯绘寚鈥樼幇浠g殑鍖楀钩闊崇郴鈥欒€岃█锛屸€滃苟闈炲繀瀛楀瓧灏婂叾鍦熼煶鈥濄€?<BR><BR>杩戜唬鐨勨€滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濅竴璇嶏紝鏄湵鏂囩唺浜?906骞撮娆℃彁鍑虹殑锛屽悗鏉ョ灴绉嬬櫧绛変篃鏇炬彁鍑衡€滄櫘閫氳瘽鈥濈殑璇存硶锛屽苟涓庤寘鐩惧氨鏅€氳瘽鐨勫疄闄呮墍鎸囧睍寮€浜夎銆傜粡鈥滀簲鍥涒€濅互鏉ョ殑鐧借瘽鏂囪繍鍔ㄣ€佸ぇ浼楄杩愬姩鍜屽浗璇繍鍔紝鍖椾含璇煶鐨勫湴浣嶅緱鍒扮‘绔嬪苟宸╁浐涓嬫潵銆?nbsp; <BR><BR>鏂颁腑鍥芥垚绔嬪悗锛?955骞翠妇琛岀殑鈥滃叏鍥芥枃瀛楁敼闈╀細璁€濅笂锛屽紶濂氳嫢鍦ㄥぇ浼氫富棰樻姤鍛婁腑璇存槑锛?<BR><BR>姹夋皯鏃忓叡鍚岃浠庡彜鑷充粖鏈夊ソ鍑犵璇存硶锛屾湁闆呰█銆侀€氳銆佸畼璇濄€佹皯鍥芥椂鏈熺殑鍥借銆傚悕绉颁笉鍚岋紝鍐呭鍩烘湰鏄竴鏍风殑銆?949骞存柊涓浗寤虹珛锛屼腑鍥借蛋涓婂畬鍏ㄦ柊鐨勯樁娈碉紝涓轰簡鍙戝睍鏂颁腑鍥界殑鏂囧寲鏁欒偛锛屾垜浠篃瑕佹帹骞挎皯鏃忓叡鍚岃锛屽厠鏈嶆柟瑷€鍒嗘閫犳垚鐨勯殧闃傘€傚湪涓婁笘绾?0骞翠唬锛屾垜浠鎺ㄥ箍姘戞棌鍏卞悓璇紝鍘嗗彶涓婃浘缁忔湁濂藉嚑涓笉鍚岀殑鍚嶇О锛屾垜浠彨浠€涔堝憿锛?nbsp; <BR><BR>鎴戜滑鏄竴涓粺涓€鐨勫姘戞棌鍥藉锛屽悇姘戞棌鐨勮瑷€鏂囧瓧涓€寰嬪钩绛夛紝鑰屾皯鍥芥椂鏈熺殑鍥借瀹為檯鏄眽姘戞棌鐨勫叡鍚岃锛岃€屼笉鏄叾浠栧皯鏁版皯鏃忕殑鍏卞悓璇€備负浜嗙獊鍑烘垜浠槸涓€涓姘戞棌鐨勫ぇ瀹跺涵锛屼负浜嗙獊鍑烘垜浠悇姘戞棌璇█鏂囧瓧鐨勫钩绛夛紝鎵€浠ョ粡杩囨繁鍏ョ爺绌讹紝鎴戜滑鍐冲畾涓嶉噰鍙栧浗璇繖涓彨娉曘€傚鏋滃彨鍥借鐨勮瘽锛屾媴蹇冧細琚瑙d负鎶婃眽璇噷椹句簬鍥藉唴鍏朵粬姘戞棌涔嬩笂銆?nbsp; <BR><BR>缁忚繃鐮旂┒鏈€鍚庡喅瀹氬彨鏅€氳瘽銆?<BR></P> </div> <h3><span class="texts">杞诲0</span><a name="5" href="doc-editsection-199-5.html" >缂栬緫鏈</a><a href="doc-view-199.html#section">鍥炵洰褰?/a></h3> <div class="content_topp"> <P>杞诲0鏄寚鍦ㄦ櫘閫氳瘽鐨勮瘝鍜屽彞瀛愪腑锛屾湁浜涢煶鑺傚洜鍙楀墠鍚庨煶鑺傜殑褰卞搷鑰屽け鍘讳簡鍘熸湁鐨勫0璋冿紝浠庤€屽彉鎴愪簡涓€绉嶈蒋鑰岃交鐨勮皟瀛愩€備緥濡傦細鐖哥埜锛坆脿路ba锛夈€佺偣蹇冿紙di菐n路xin锛夌瓑锛岃繖绫昏瘝涓浜屼釜闊宠妭鐨勫0璋冨湪瀹為檯璇婚煶涓彉寰楄交杞ā绯婏紝渚垮睘浜庤交澹般€?/P> <P>杞诲0鍦ㄦ櫘閫氳瘽涓叿鏈夊尯鍒嗚瘝鎬у拰鍖哄埆璇嶄箟鐨勪綔鐢紝濡傦細鍏勫紵锛坸i艒ng路di锛夛紝鎸囧紵寮燂紱鍏勫紵锛坸i艒ng銆€d矛锛夛紝鎸団€滄寚鍝ヤ咯鈥濄€傚埄瀹筹紙l矛路hai锛夛紝鎸団€滃帀瀹斥€濄€佲€滅▼搴﹀緢娣扁€濓紝鏄舰瀹硅瘝鎴栧壇璇嶏紝濡傗€滅柤寰楀緢鍘夊鈥濓紱鍒╁锛坙矛h脿i锛夛紝鎸囩泭澶勬垨瀹冲锛屾槸鍚嶈瘝锛屽鈥滀綘搴旇鏄庣櫧杩欎欢浜嬬殑鍒╁鎵€鍦ㄢ€濄€?/P> <P>杞诲0鏄敱浜庨煶鑺傝闊冲急鍖栵紝鍦ㄩ煶楂樸€侀煶闀跨瓑鏂归潰浜х敓鐨勪竴绉嶉煶鍙樼幇璞★紝鍙涓虹壒娈婄殑鍙樿皟锛屼笉鏄竴涓嫭绔嬬殑璋冪被銆備絾鏄紝杞诲0闊宠妭闄や簡璋冨€兼槑鏄炬敼鍙樸€侀煶闀垮彉鐭€屽锛岄煶寮轰害鏈夋墍鍑忓急锛屽線寰€杩樺紩璧蜂簡闊宠壊鐨勬煇浜涙敼鍙橈紝濡傞煹姣嶇殑鍙戦煶鍙樺緱姣旇緝鍚贩锛屼富瑕佸厓闊崇殑鑸屼綅鍚戣垖闈€佸ぎ銆佷腑鏂瑰悜绉诲姩锛屼笉閫佹皵鐨勬竻濉為煶銆佹竻濉炴摝闊冲0姣嶆祳鍖栫瓑銆傚鈥滃摜鍝モ€濓紙g膿路ge锛変竴璇嶄腑锛岀浜屼釜闊宠妭蹇典綔杞诲0锛屽叾澹版瘝鐢辨竻濉為煶鍙樻垚浜嗙浉瀵瑰簲鐨勬祳濉為煶锛岄煹姣嶇敱鑸岄潰銆佸悗銆佸崐楂樸€佷笉鍦嗗攪鍏冮煶鍙樻垚浜嗚垖闈€佸ぎ銆佷腑銆佷腑鍦嗗攪鍏冮煶銆?/P> <P>杞诲0鐨勮娉曪紝涓€鑸潵璇存槸鍦ㄩ槾骞炽€侀槼骞炽€佸幓澹板悗闈㈣鐨勮皟瀛愭瘮鍓嶄竴涓煶鑺傝浣庯紝鍏惰皟鍊煎彲澶ц嚧鎻忚堪涓虹煭淇冪殑浣庨檷璋冿紱涓婂0鍚庨潰鐨勮交澹版瘮鍓嶉潰鐨勯煶鑺傝楂樹竴浜涳紝鍏惰皟鍊煎ぇ鑷村彲鎻忚堪涓虹煭淇冪殑鍗婇珮骞宠皟銆傞渶娉ㄦ剰鐨勯棶棰樻槸锛屼笉鑳戒负浜嗗彂杞诲0鑰屽彂鐢熲€滃悆瀛椻€濄€佲€滃悶瀛椻€濈幇璞°€傚锛?/P> <P>闈炰笂澹帮紜杞诲0</P> <P>鑳宠唺銆€娈嬬柧銆€钁姦銆€鍏摜銆€鐩稿0銆€鐤熺柧銆€鍏堢敓銆€鍦颁笅</P> <P>涓婂0锛嬭交澹?/P> <P>鎵撴壆銆€涔板崠銆€鍠囧彮銆€鏋曞ご銆€鍝戝反銆€濮愬銆€鑸屽ご</P> <P>1.澶ч儴鍒嗗康杞诲0鐨勯煶鑺備笌鍏惰娉曟剰涔夊強璇嶆眹鐩稿叧锛屾瘮濡傝姘旇瘝鈥滃晩銆佸惂銆佸憿銆佸悧鈥濈瓑锛屽悕璇嶃€佷唬璇嶅悗缂€鈥滃瓙銆佸効銆佸ご銆佺殑銆佷滑鈥濈瓑锛屾柟浣嶈瘝鈥滀笂銆佷笅銆侀噷銆佸ご銆佽竟銆侀潰鈥濈瓑锛屽姩璇嶅悗闈㈣〃绀鸿秼鍚戠殑璇嶁€滄潵銆佸幓鈥濈瓑锛屽姪璇嶁€滅殑銆佸湴銆佸緱銆佺潃銆佷簡銆佽繃鈥濈瓑銆?/P> <P>锛?锛夐煶鎴栭噸杩紡鐨勫悕璇嶏紝鏈熬鐨勯煶鑺傚ぇ澶氬康杞诲0銆傚锛?/P> <P>濡堝銆€鐖哥埜銆€濠嗗﹩銆€鍏叕銆€濂跺ザ銆€濮ュД銆€濠跺┒銆€鍙斿彅銆€濮戝</P> <P>濮愬銆€鍝ュ摜銆€寮熷紵銆€濡瑰銆€濞冨▋銆€澶お銆€濞樺銆€鐖风埛銆€鏄熸槦</P> <P>鑸呰垍銆€鐚╃尒</P> <P>锛?锛変互鈥滃瓙銆佸ご鈥濅负鍚庣紑鐨勫悕璇嶏紝鈥滃瓙鈥濅竴鑸康浣滆交澹帮紝鈥滃ご鈥濈粷澶ч儴鍒嗕篃蹇典綔杞诲0銆傚锛?/P> <P>鍎垮瓙銆€鑰佸瓙銆€搴欏瓙銆€妗屽瓙銆€鍑冲瓙銆€妞呭瓙銆€鐩嗗瓙銆€鐩樺瓙銆€鐦﹀瓙</P> <P>閾插瓙銆€鐐夊瓙銆€榧诲瓙銆€灏忓瓙銆€瑁ゅ瓙銆€楝煎瓙銆€瀛欏瓙銆€鍏斿瓙銆€鐕曞瓙</P> <P>鑳″瓙銆€妗冨瓙銆€鏉庡瓙銆€鏇插瓙銆€灞嬪瓙銆€闉嬪瓙銆€琚滃瓙銆€鏍峰瓙銆€闄㈠瓙</P> <P>鑳栧瓙銆€棰嗗瓙銆€鐮佸ご銆€鐩煎ご銆€棣掑ご銆€鑸屽ご銆€璧氬ご銆€鍏嗗ご銆€娴ご</P> <P>鎯冲ご銆€鑺嬪ご銆€蹇靛ご銆€鏈ㄥご銆€椋庡ご銆€鏉ュご銆€鐢滃ご銆€濮樺ご銆€鐭冲ご銆€</P> <P>鎼炲ご銆€鐪夊ご銆€鎸囧ご</P> <P>锛?锛変互鈥滀滑鈥濅负鍚庣紑鐨勮〃澶嶆暟鐨勪汉绉颁唬璇垨鎸囦汉鐨勫悕璇嶆€ц瘝璇腑锛屸€滀滑鈥濆康浣滆交澹般€傚锛?/P> <P>鏉ュ浠€€濂冲+浠€€绁栧厛浠€€鏈嬪弸浠€€浜轰滑銆€浠栦滑銆€鍜变滑</P> <P>璁拌€呬滑銆€鍏堢敓浠€€鍚庣敓浠€€鍚岃緢浠€€瀛╁瓙浠€€浣犱滑銆€鎴戜滑</P> <P>璀﹀療浠€€瀹樺憳浠€€鍟嗕汉浠€€宸ヤ汉浠€€鍐滄皯浠€€濂逛滑</P> <P>锛?锛変互鈥滀笂銆佷笅銆侀噷鈥濈瓑涓哄悗缂€锛屼粎琛ㄦ柟浣嶆剰涔夌殑璇嶈鎴栬瘝绱狅紝鍏跺悗缂€涓€鑸康杞诲0銆傚锛?/P> <P>璺笂銆€闈笂銆€椤朵笂銆€鏃╀笂銆€鏅氫笂銆€鐐曚笂銆€鍙颁笂銆€搴т笂</P> <P>琛ㄩ潰涓娿€€澧欎笂銆€搴т笂銆€鏍戜笂銆€璇惧爞涓娿€€鑴氫笅銆€妤间笅銆€杞︿笅</P> <P>搴曚笅銆€鍦颁笅銆€灞嬮噷銆€蹇冮噷銆€鑳屽湴閲屻€€澶滈噷銆€鍘傞噷銆€瀹堕噷</P> <P>锛?锛変互鈥滃ご銆侀潰銆佽竟鈥濄€€涓哄悗缂€鏋勬垚鐨勫悎鎴愭柟浣嶈瘝锛屽叾鍚庣紑涓€鑸康浣滆交澹般€傚锛?/P> <P>鍓嶅ご銆€鍚庡ご銆€澶栧ご銆€涓嬪ご銆€涓婂ご銆€鍚庡ご銆€閲屽ご</P> <P>鍓嶉潰銆€鍚庨潰銆€閲岄潰銆€澶栭潰銆€渚ч潰</P> <P>澶栬竟銆€宸﹁竟銆€瑗胯竟銆€鍖楄竟銆€鍓嶈竟銆€鍙宠竟銆€鍗楄竟閲岃竟</P> <P>鍚庤竟銆€涓滆竟</P> <P>锛?锛夎姘斿姪璇嶁€滃悧銆佸憿銆佸惂銆佸暒鈥濓紝鍔ㄦ€佸姪璇嶁€滅潃銆佷簡銆佽繃鈥濓紝缁撴瀯鍔╄瘝鈥滅殑銆佸湴銆佸緱鈥濈瓑锛屽潎蹇典綔杞诲0銆傚锛?/P> <P>璧板悧锛熷ソ鍚楋紵浣犲憿锛熷摢鍎垮憿锛熺湅杩囥€€瀹屼簡銆€璧扮潃銆€鐢ㄧ殑</P> <P>鐤煎悧锛熻蛋鍚楋紵濂瑰憿锛熼毦鍙楀槢锛佽蛋杩囥€€杩囦簡銆€鎯崇潃銆€鍚冪殑</P> <P>鑻﹀悧锛熻鍚楋紵鎴戝憿锛熷悆瀹屽暒锛佸悆杩囥€€鍠濅簡銆€涔愮潃銆€绌跨殑</P> <P>浠旂粏鍦扮湅銆€鍥板緱涓嶈銆€缇庝附鐨勫濞?/P> <P>锛?锛夐檮鐫€浜庝腑蹇冭瘝涔嬪悗鐨勮秼鍚戝姩璇嶄綔琛ヨ鏃讹紝蹇典綔杞诲0銆傝嫢涓績璇嶄笌瓒嬪悜鍔ㄨ瘝涔嬮棿鎻掑叆浜嗏€滀笉銆佸緱鈥濇椂锛屸€滀笉銆佸緱鈥濆康浣滆交澹帮紝瓒嬪悜鍔ㄨ瘝涓€鑸敼蹇靛師璋冦€傚锛?/P> <P>璧锋潵銆€鐪嬪嚭銆€鎷垮嚭鏉ャ€€鐪嬩笂銆€璇村嚭鏉?/P> <P>璧蜂笉鏉ャ€€鐪嬩笉鍑恒€€璇翠笉鍑烘潵銆€鎷垮緱鍑烘潵銆€鐪嬪緱涓?/P> <P>鎷夸笉鍑烘潵銆€鐪嬩笉涓娿€€璧峰緱鏉ャ€€鐪嬪緱鍑恒€€璇村緱鍑烘潵</P> <P>锛?锛夐噸杩姩璇嶈繛鐢ㄦ椂锛岄噸杩殑闊宠妭蹇典綔杞诲0锛涜嫢閲嶈凯杩炵敤鐨勫姩璇嶄腑闂存彃鍏ヤ簡鈥滀竴銆佷笉鈥濇椂锛屸€滀竴銆佷笉鈥濆康杞诲0锛岄噸杩煶鑺傚康鍘熻皟銆傚锛?/P> <P>璧拌蛋銆€鐪嬬湅銆€璇磋銆€鍚冨悆銆€绗戠瑧銆€閬涢仜</P> <P>璧颁竴璧般€€鐪嬩竴鐪嬨€€閬涗竴閬涖€€璇翠笉璇淬€€鍚冧笉鍚冦€€绗戜笉绗?/P> <P>2.閮ㄥ垎璇嶈涓杞诲0鐨勯煶鑺傚叿鏈夊垎杈ㄨ瘝涔夈€佽瘝鎬х殑浣滅敤銆傝闊宠妭鑻ヨ鍘熻皟锛屽垯璇嶄箟鏈夋墍鏀瑰彉銆傚锛?/P> <P>鍏勫紵xi艒ng路di/xi艒ngd矛銆€涔板崠m菐i路mai/m菐im脿i</P> <P>鍦伴亾d矛路dao/d矛d脿o 銆€銆€銆€鍐锋垬l臎ng路zhan/l臎ngzh脿n</P> <P>鑰佸瓙l菐o路zi/l菐oz菒 銆€銆€銆€鍒╁l矛路hai/l矛h脿i</P> <P>榫欏ごl贸ng路tou/l贸ngt贸u銆€銆€澶ф剰d脿yi/d脿y矛</P> <P>瑁佺紳c谩i路feng/c谩if茅ng銆€銆€瀹炲湪sh铆路zai/sh铆z脿i</P> <P>澶х埛d脿路ye/d脿y茅銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€鏈簨b臎n路shi/b臎nsh矛</P> <P>瀵瑰ごdu矛路tou/du矛t贸u銆€銆€銆€涓滃d艒og路jia/d艒ngji膩</P> <P>鐘汉f脿n路ren/f脿nr茅n銆€銆€銆€闂ㄩ亾m茅n路dao/m茅nd脿o</P> <P>鎶ュ憡b脿o路gao/b脿og脿o銆€銆€銆€澶氬皯du艒路shao/du艒sh菐o</P> <P>3.鏈変簺璇嶈涓殑杞诲0闊宠妭鏄害瀹氫織鎴愮殑銆傚锛?/P> <P>锛?锛夐槾骞筹紜杞诲0</P> <P>妲熸銆€宸簨銆€鎼€鍜屻€€椋庣瓭銆€鐜荤拑銆€宸存帉銆€宸寸粨銆€瀹朵紮銆€鍝嗗棪</P> <P>鍢€鍜曘€€琛f湇銆€鑺濋夯銆€鍛ㄥ埌銆€鎬濋噺銆€涔﹁銆€鑸掓湇銆€浼戞伅銆€寮犵綏</P> <P>浜ゆ儏銆€瀹界话銆€浣滃潑銆€濡栫簿銆€楗ヨ崚銆€鍏銆€绋€缃曘€€鐢熸棩銆€绉ф瓕</P> <P>鏀惥銆€鎷涘懠銆€鑺卞摠銆€瀹朵紮銆€閭嬮仮銆€鍖呰⒈銆€鐑чゼ銆€钖按銆€鎶樿吘</P> <P>锛?锛夐槼骞筹紜杞诲0</P> <P>鑺傛皵銆€鍖€绉般€€濡▽銆€骞存湀銆€鐩樼畻銆€鏋囨澐銆€绡辩瑔銆€娲绘臣銆€鐜勪箮</P> <P>鐙愮嫺銆€瀛︾敓銆€鎸姩銆€鎷炬巼銆€骞存垚銆€楹荤儲銆€绁炰粰銆€铔よ焼銆€鐭虫Υ</P> <P>鐜懓銆€鍑夊揩銆€钀濆崪銆€妫夎姳銆€榛忕硦銆€鏈嬪弸銆€濂存墠銆€绁炵敨銆€浜戝僵</P> <P>绗ゅ笟銆€琛屾潕銆€鎶樼(銆€铇戣弴銆€鑳借€愩€€璐富銆€鏌寸伀銆€娈嬬柧銆€闂ㄩ潰</P> <P>锛?锛変笂澹帮紜杞诲0</P> <P>鎵崗銆€鑴戣銆€鍙h銆€鑰佺埛銆€鑰佸﹩銆€鎽嗗竷銆€鍢村反銆€鎸囧ご銆€鐡滃瓙</P> <P>灏忓銆€宸茬粡銆€鎸囩敳銆€涓绘剰銆€濮斿眻銆€鍠囧彮銆€璁茬┒銆€鎵撳彂銆€鎵撳惉</P> <P>鍝嶅姩銆€鍢卞拹銆€鍠滄銆€浣撻潰銆€绋冲綋銆€鐐瑰績銆€浼欒銆€鎵撴壆銆€鍝戝反</P> <P>濂冲┛銆€棣栭グ銆€鐖藉揩銆€鍏绘椿銆€娲掕劚銆€鐪肩潧銆€鐗′腹銆€鑰虫湹銆€椹檸</P> <P>锛?锛夊幓澹帮紜杞诲0</P> <P>鑷湪銆€蹇樻€с€€鍚撳敩銆€鐩稿叕銆€鍔涙皵銆€婕備寒銆€绠楃洏銆€闃熶紞銆€鍦版柟</P> <P>璞嗚厫銆€椋庢暟銆€鐥涘揩銆€蹇靛彣銆€绗戣瘽銆€鐑箮銆€涓堝か銆€蹇楁皵銆€閽ュ寵</P> <P>鏈堜寒銆€姝g粡銆€鍋氫綔銆€浣嶇疆銆€绉€姘斻€€涓婂徃銆€鎮熸€с€€鍛婄ず銆€鍘氶亾</P> <P>鍔ㄩ潤銆€鐑椆銆€渚垮綋銆€涓嬪満銆€灞佽偂銆€鍒╄惤銆€闃旀皵銆€浜插銆€鎰忔€?/P> <P>鏍呮爮銆€鍕惧綋銆€鍦版柟銆€鎶ラ叕</P> <DIV class=hdwiki_tmml> <DIV class=hdwiki_tmmll>杞婚噸鏍煎紡</DIV></DIV> <P>鏅€氳瘽闊宠妭鍦ㄨ瘝缁勭粨鏋勪腑骞朵笉鏄寰椾竴鏍烽噸锛岃€屾槸鏈夎交閲嶅尯鍒嗭紝浣嗚交涓庨噸鏄浉瀵硅€岃█鐨勶紝鍏惰交閲嶆牸寮忓ぇ鑷翠负閲嶃€佷腑銆佹銆佽交銆佽交鍥涚骇銆傚湪瀹為檯鍙戦煶涓紝濡傛灉涓嶈兘姣旇緝鍑嗙‘鍦版帉鎻℃櫘閫氳瘽鐨勮交閲嶆牸寮忥紝鍚捣鏉ュ氨浼氬甫鏈夋槑鏄剧殑鏂硅█鑵旇皟銆傛帉鎻¤交閲嶆牸寮忕殑鏂规硶锛屽湪浜庤澶氬惉銆佸杈ㄥ埆銆佸缁冧範锛屼粠鑰屽舰鎴愭纭殑璇劅銆?/P> <P>1.鍙岄煶鑺傝瘝璇殑杞婚噸闊虫牸寮?/P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀腑锛嶉噸鈥濇牸寮忓眳澶氥€傚锛?/P> <P>澶╂触銆€鍖椾含銆€骞挎挱銆€鍏抽殬銆€浜烘皯銆€涓撳銆€閰嶄箰銆€鐢伴噹銆€娴佹按</P> <P>鑺辫崏銆€绱㈣銆€鍒拌揪銆€濂夋壙銆€鐧戒簯銆€姝g‘銆€杩滆冻銆€娓呮緢銆€钃濆ぉ</P> <P>鍐虫枟銆€璁ょ湡</P> <P>锛?锛夆€滈噸锛嶄腑鈥濓紙鍗斥€滈噸锛嶆杞烩€濓級鏍煎紡銆傚锛?/P> <P>姝f湀銆€鎴樺+銆€璁拌€呫€€浣滃銆€鍥伴毦銆€涔﹁銆€璁炬柦銆€鍚堝悓銆€鎰忎箟</P> <P>鐭ヨ瘑銆€閬撶悊銆€鍐滄皯銆€鍙傝皨銆€鎰忓織銆€鐜拌薄銆€姘旀皼銆€缂栬緫銆€娑堟伅</P> <P>锛?锛夆€滈噸锛嶈交鈥濇牸寮忋€傚锛?/P> <P>涓堝か銆€鑰佸﹩銆€浜轰滑銆€涓滆タ銆€閽ュ寵銆€钀濆崪銆€涓ご銆€澶槼銆€娲绘臣銆€</P> <P>铇戣弴銆€鑰虫湹銆€鍌诲瓙銆€鐢樿敆銆€鎻愰槻銆€鑱槑銆€椋庣瓭銆€娓╁拰銆€鍔熷か</P> <P>2.涓夐煶鑺傝瘝璇殑杞婚噸闊虫牸寮?/P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀腑锛嶆杞伙紞閲嶁€濇牸寮忓眳澶氥€傚锛?/P> <P>瑙f斁鍐涖€€鏂囧闄€€鍝插绯汇€€閭數灞€銆€鐢典俊灞€銆€鍘嬪姏閿?/P> <P>鏃ュ厜鐏€€鍏变骇鍏氥€€鎺у埗鍣ㄣ€€椹叞鑺便€€灞曡棣嗐€€瑗跨孩鏌?/P> <P>鎾煶鍛樸€€瑗挎柟浜?/P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀腑锛嶉噸锛嶈交鈥濇牸寮忋€傚锛?/P> <P>鑰佸ご瀛愩€€澶у濞樸€€宸у濡囥€€鑺遍鏈点€€鑳¤悵鍗溿€€鑰佷紮璁?/P> <P>鎵撶墮绁?/P> <P>锛?锛夆€滈噸锛嶈交锛嶆杞烩€濇牸寮忋€傚锛?/P> <P>瀛╁瓙浠€€鏈嬪弸浠€€濮戝瀹躲€€鍏堢敓浠€€濂充汉浠€€寮熷厔浠€€浼欒浠?/P> <P>3.鍥涢煶鑺傝瘝璇殑杞婚噸闊虫牸寮?/P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀腑锛嶆杞伙紞涓紞閲嶁€濇牸寮忓眳澶氥€傚锛?/P> <P>娴佽闊充箰銆€楂樼瓑瀛︽牎銆€椹烽┈闅捐拷銆€閫嗘按琛岃垷銆€姹熷北澶氬▏</P> <P>楂樻ゼ澶у帵銆€鏃惰琛ㄦ紨銆€鐧剧偧鎴愰挗銆€鎴愰兘鍦板浘銆€瓒鹃珮姘旀壃</P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀腑锛嶈交锛嶄腑锛嶉噸鈥濇牸寮忋€傚锛?/P> <P>绯婇噷绯婃秱銆€鎷夋媺鎵壇銆€鎷栨嫋鎷夋媺銆€涓婁笂涓嬩笅銆€澶уぇ灏忓皬</P> <P>鍚冨悆鍠濆枬銆€鍦板湴閬撻亾銆€娆㈡绗戠瑧銆€鍠滄皵娲嬫磱</P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀腑锛嶆杞伙紞閲嶏紞杞烩€濇牸寮忋€傝繖绫昏瘝姹囧彛璇眳灏戙€傚锛?/P> <P>鍗婂ぇ灏忓瓙銆€鎷滄妸鍏勫紵銆€闂哄コ濂冲┛銆€濡傛剰绠楃洏</P> <P>缁冧範</P> <P>缁曞彛浠?/P> <P>鑱嬪瓙銆佺瀛愩€佽櫕瀛?/P> <P>鑱嬪瓙鎻愮瀛愶紝绗煎瓙瑁呰櫕瀛愶紝铏瓙鍜瀛愶紝鑱嬪瓙鎹夎櫕瀛愩€?/P> <P>灏忚溅鎷夌煶澶淬€€</P> <P>澶ц溅鎷夊皬杞︼紝灏忚溅鎷夌煶澶达紝鐭冲ご鎺変笅鏉ワ紝鐮镐簡灏忚剼瓒惧ご銆?/P> <P>鍠囧槢鍜屽搼宸?/P> <P>鎵撳崡杈规潵浜嗕釜鍠囧槢锛屾墜閲屾彁鎷夌潃浜旀枻槌庣洰锛屾墦鍖楄竟鏉ヤ簡涓搼宸达紝鑵伴噷鍒潃涓枃鍙€傚崡杈规彁鎷夐硯鐩殑鍠囧槢锛岃鎷块硯鐩崲鍖楄竟鍎垮埆鍠囧彮鐨勫搼宸寸殑鍠囧彮锛屽搼宸翠笉涔愭剰鎷垮枃鍙崲鎻愭媺槌庣洰鐨勫枃鍢涚殑槌庣洰锛屽枃鍢涢潪瑕佹嬁槌庣洰鎹㈠埆鍠囧彮鐨勫搼宸寸殑鍠囧彮銆傚枃鍢涙姟璧烽硯鐩娊浜嗗埆鍠囧彮鐨勫搼宸翠竴槌庣洰锛屽搼宸存憳涓嬪枃鍙墦浜嗘彁鎷夐硯鐩殑鍠囧槢涓€鍠囧彮锛屼篃涓嶇煡鏄彁鎷夐硯鐩殑鍠囧槢鎶戒簡鍒枃鍙殑鍝戝反鍑犻硯鐩紝杩樻槸鍒枃鍙殑鍝戝反鎵撲簡鎻愭媺槌庣洰鐨勫枃鍢涘嚑鍠囧彮銆傚彧鐭ラ亾锛屽枃鍢涚倴槌庣洰锛屽搼宸村榾鍢€鍡掑棐鍚瑰枃鍙€?/P> <P>閮集浼?/P> <P>閮集浼紝鍗栫伀閿咃紝甯﹀崠澧ㄦ按鍜岄棣嶃€傚ⅷ姘撮棣嶈鐏攨锛岀伀閿呯(寰楀ⅷ鐡剁牬銆備集浼洖瀹朵氦濠嗗﹩锛屽﹩濠嗘巰閿呮嬁棣嶉銆傚ⅷ姘撮棣嶆弧鐏攨锛屽﹩濠嗗潗鐫€榛樼悽纾紝鑾潪鏄鍥戒骇鍝佹懇鐧昏揣銆?/P> <P>澶╀笂鏃ュご</P> <P>澶╀笂鏃ュご锛屽槾閲岃垖澶达紝鍦颁笂鐭冲ご锛屾涓婄焊澶淬€傚ぇ鑴氶澶达紝灏忚剼瓒惧ご锛屾爲涓婃灊澶达紝闆嗕笂甯傚ご銆?/P> <P>妗冨瓙銆佹潕瀛愭牻婊¢櫌瀛?/P> <P>妗冨瓙銆佹潕瀛愩€佹ⅷ瀛愩€佹牀瀛愩€佹瀛愩€佹熆瀛愩€佹瀛愩€佹瀛愩€佹牻婊¢櫌瀛愩€佹潙瀛愬拰瀵ㄥ瓙銆傚垁瀛愩€佹枾瀛愩€侀敮瀛愩€佸嚳瀛愩€侀敜瀛愩€佸垱瀛愬拰灏哄瓙锛屽仛鍑烘瀛愩€佹瀛愬拰绠卞瓙銆?/P> <DIV class=hdwiki_tmml> <DIV class=hdwiki_tmmll>鍎垮寲</DIV></DIV> <P><BR> <BR>鏅€氳瘽涓湁璁稿璇嶆眹鐨勫瓧闊抽煹姣嶅洜鍗疯垖鍔ㄤ綔鑰屽彂鐢熼煶鍙樼幇璞★紝杩欑鐜拌薄灏卞彨鍋氬効鍖栥€傚効鍖栦簡鐨勯煹姣嶅氨鍙€滃効鍖栭煹鈥濓紝鍏舵爣蹇楁槸鍦ㄩ煹姣嶅悗闈㈠姞涓妑銆傚効鍖栧悗鐨勫瓧闊充粛鏄竴涓煶鑺傦紝浣嗗甫鍎垮寲闊电殑闊充簡涓€鑸敱涓や釜姹夊瓧鏉ヤ功鍐欙紝濡傝妺鍎匡紙y霉r锛夈€佽€佸ご鍎匡紙l菐ot贸ur锛夌瓑銆?/P> <P>鍎垮寲鏄惁浣块煹姣嶄骇鐢熶簡闊冲彉锛屽彇鍐充簬闊垫瘝鐨勬渶鏈竴涓煶绱犲彂闊冲姩浣滄槸鍚︿笌鍗疯垖鍔ㄤ綔鍙戠敓鍐茬獊锛堝嵆鍓嶄竴涓姩浣滄槸鍚﹀Θ纰嶄簡鍚庝竴涓姩浣滅殑鍙戠敓锛夛紝鑻ヤ袱鑰呭彂鐢熷啿绐侊紝濡ㄧ浜嗗嵎鑸屽姩浣滐紝鍎垮寲鏃堕煹姣嶅彂闊冲氨蹇呴』鏈夋墍鏀瑰彉銆?/P> <P>鏅€氳瘽涓櫎er闊点€伱煹澶栵紝鍏跺畠闊垫瘝鍧囧彲鍎垮寲銆傛湁浜涗笉鍚岀殑闊垫瘝缁忚繃鍎垮寲涔嬪悗锛屽彂闊冲彉寰楃浉鍚屼簡锛屾晠褰掔撼璧锋潵鏅€氳瘽39涓煹姣嶄腑鍙湁26涓効鍖栭煹銆?/P> <P>鍦ㄦ櫘閫氳瘽涓紝鍎垮寲鍏锋湁鍖哄埆璇嶄箟銆佸尯鍒嗚瘝鎬х殑鍔熻兘锛屽鈥滈《鈥濅綔鍔ㄨ瘝锛屸€滈《鍎库€濅綔鍚嶈瘝锛涒€滀竴鐐光€濇槸鍚嶈瘝鎸囨椂闂达紝鈥滀竴鐐瑰効鈥濅綔閲忚瘝锛屾槸鈥滃皯閲忋€佸皯璁糕€濈殑鎰忔€濄€傚湪鍏锋湁鍖哄埆璇嶄箟鍜岃鲸鍒瘝鎬т綔鐢ㄧ殑璇涓紝璇ュ効鍖栧鐞嗙殑鍦版柟涓€瀹氳鍎垮寲锛屽惁鍒欏氨浼氫骇鐢熸涔夈€備絾鍦ㄥ箍鎾瑷€涓挨鍏舵槸鏀挎不绫汇€佺瀛︾被銆佸鏈被鐨勮妭鐩腑锛屽璇█鐨勪弗璋ㄧ▼搴﹁姹傝緝楂橈紝瑕佸敖閲忓皯鐢ㄥ効鍖栵紱鍦ㄤ功闈㈣瑷€鎴栨瘮杈冩寮忕殑璇█鐜涓篃涓嶅疁澶氱敤鍎垮寲銆?/P> <P>杩樻湁涓€绫诲効鍖栨槸琛ㄧず鍠滅埍銆佷翰鍒囩殑鎰熸儏鑹插僵銆傚锛氳劯铔嬪効銆佽姳鍎裤€佸皬瀛╁効銆佺數褰卞効銆?/P> <P>琛ㄧず灏戙€佸皬銆佽交绛夌姸鎬佸拰鎬ц川锛屼篃甯稿父鐢ㄥ埌鍎垮寲銆傚锛氱背绮掑効銆侀棬缂濆効銆佽泲榛勫効銆?/P> <P>鍦ㄥ疄闄呯殑鍎垮寲闊佃璇讳腑锛屽効鍖栭煶涓庡叾鍓嶉潰鐨勯煶鑺傛槸杩炲湪涓€璧峰彂闊崇殑锛屼笉瀹滃垎瑙e紑鏉ヨ锛堝嵆涓嶅彲鎶婂悗闈㈢殑鈥滃効鈥濆瓧鍗曠嫭銆佹竻鏅板湴璇诲嚭锛夈€備絾鍦ㄨ瘲姝屾暎鏂囥€€绛夋姃鎯呯被鏂囦綋涓紝鏈夋椂涓轰簡鎶奸煹鐨勯渶瑕侊紝鍙崟鐙彂鍎垮寲闊电殑闊筹紝濡傗€滄爲鍙跺効锛屾湀鐗欏効鈥濄€?/P> <P>1.浠銆乷銆伱€乪銆乽锛堝寘鎷琣o銆乪ao涓殑o锛変綔闊靛熬鐨勯煹姣嶄綔鍎垮寲澶勭悊鏃讹紝鍏惰闊冲彉鍖栦笉澶ぇ锛屽嵎鑸屽姩浣滀笌鍏舵湰韬殑鍙戦煶鍐茬獊涓嶅ぇ锛屾墍浠ュ効鍖栨椂鐩存帴甯︿笂鍗疯垖闊宠壊褰╁嵆鍙€傚叾涓紝e鐨勮垖浣嶇◢绋嶅悗绉讳竴鐐癸紝a鐨勮垖浣嶇暐寰崌楂樹竴鐐瑰嵆鍙€傚锛?/P> <P>a鈫抋r锛氬摢鍎縩菐r銆€銆€鎵嬫妸鍎縮h菕ub脿r</P> <P>ia鈫抜ar锛氬彾鑺藉効yi猫y谩r銆€銆€銆€銆€閽卞す鍎縬i谩nji谩r</P> <P>ua鈫抲ar锛氱敾鍎縣u脿r銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€娴姳鍎縧脿nghu膩r</P> <P>o鈫抩u锛氱矇鏈効f臎nm貌r銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€绔硅啘鍎縵h煤m贸r</P> <P>uo鈫抮or锛氱溂绐濆効y菐nw艒r銆€銆€銆€銆€澶т紮鍎縟脿hu菕r</P> <P>e鈫抏r锛氬皬鐩掑効xi菐oh茅r銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€纭3鍎縴矛ngk茅r</P> <P>ue鈫抲er锛氫富瑙掑効zh菙ju茅r銆€銆€銆€銆€鏈ㄦ鍎縨霉ju茅r</P> <P>ie鈫抜er锛氱煶闃跺効sh铆ji膿r銆€銆€銆€銆€瀛楀笘鍎縵矛ti臎r</P> <P>u鈫抲r锛氭唱鐝犲効l猫izh奴r銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€绂昏氨鍎縧铆p菙r</P> <P>ao鈫抋or锛氬皬閬撳効xi菐od脿or銆€銆€銆€鑽峰寘鍎縣茅b膩or</P> <P>ou鈫抩ur锛氳€佸ご鍎縧菐ot贸ur銆€銆€銆€銆€璺彛鍎縧霉k菕ur</P> <P>iao鈫抜aor锛氬皬璋冨効xi菐odi脿or銆€銆€鍢磋鍎縵u菒ji菐or</P> <P>iou鈫抜our锛氬皬鐞冨効xi菐oqi煤r 銆€銆€椤剁墰鍎縟菒ngni煤r</P> <P>2.闊靛熬闊崇礌浠銆伱间负涓昏鍏冮煶鐨勯煹姣嶄綔鍎垮寲澶勭悊鏃讹紝鍥爄銆伱煎紑鍙e害杈冨皬锛岃垖楂樼偣闈犲墠锛宨銆伱兼鏃跺張鏄煹鑵逛笉鑳戒涪鍘伙紝鏁呬笌鍗峰姩浣滄湁鍐茬獊銆傚鐞嗙殑鏂规硶鏄厛澧炲姞涓€涓垖闈€佸ぎ銆佷腑銆佷腑鍦嗗攪鍏冮煶锛屽啀鍦ㄦ鍩虹涓婂嵎鑸屻€傚锛?/P> <P>i鈫抜er锛氶攨搴曞効gu艒d菒r銆€銆€鏌充笣鍎縧i菙s墨r銆€銆€鐜╂剰鍎縲谩ny矛r</P> <P>眉鈫捗糴r:ih 灏忔洸鍎縳i菐oq菙r銆€姣涢┐鍎縨谩ol菢r銆€鏈夎叮鍎縴菕uq菙r</P> <P>3.闊靛熬闊崇礌涓篒鐨勯煹姣嶄綔鍎垮寲澶勭悊鏃讹紝鍥營鐨勫彂鍔ㄤ綔涓庡嵎鑸屾湁鎵€鍐茬獊锛屽効鍖栨椂闊靛熬I涓㈠け锛屽湪涓昏鍏冮煶鐨勫熀纭€涓婂嵎鑸屻€傝垖浣嶅湪鏈夌殑涓昏鍏冮煶锛岀敱浜庡彈鍗疯垖鍔ㄤ綔鐨勫奖鍝嶏紝鑸屼綅鍚戝ぎ銆佷腑鏂瑰悜鍚庣Щ銆傚锛?/P> <P>ai鈫抋r澶х墝鍎縟脿p谩ir銆€銆€銆€銆€绐楀彴鍎縞hu膩ngt谩ir</P> <P>ei鈫抏r锛氬悓杈堝効t贸ngb猫ir銆€銆€瀹濊礉鍎縝菐ob猫ir</P> <P>uai鈫抲ar锛氱硸鍧楀効t谩ngku脿ir銆€涓€鍧楀効y墨ku脿ir</P> <P>uei鈫抲er锛氬彛鍛冲効k菕uw猫ir銆€銆€涓€瀵瑰効y墨du矛r</P> <P>4.闊靛熬闊崇礌涓簄鐨勯煹姣嶄綔鍎垮寲澶勭悊鏃讹紝鍥犱负n鐨勫彂闊冲Θ纰嶄簡鍗疯垖鍔ㄤ綔锛屾墍浠ュ効鍖栫殑闊靛熬n闊宠涓㈠け锛屽湪涓昏鍏冮煶鍩虹涓婂嵎鑸屻€傚師鏉ヨ垖浣嶅湪鍓嶇殑涓昏鍏冮煶锛屽効鍖栧悗鍏堕煶鐨勮垖浣嶅悜澶€佷腑鏂瑰悜鍚庣Щ锛屼富瑕佸厓闊冲Θ纰嶅嵎鑸岀殑i銆伱兼椂锛岃澧炲姞涓€涓垖闈€佸ぎ銆佷腑銆佷笉鍦嗗攪鍏冮煶锛屽啀鍦ㄦ鍩虹涓婂嵎鑸屻€傚锛?/P> <P>an鈫抋r锛氶《鐝効d菒ngb膩nr銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€浼犲崟鍎縞hu谩nd膩nr</P> <P>en鈫抏r锛氫簭鏈効ku墨b臎nr銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€鍛芥瀬鍎縨矛ngg膿nr</P> <P>ian鈫抜ar锛氶浮鐪煎効j墨y菐nr銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€璺竟鍎縧霉bi膩nr</P> <P>in鈫抜ar锛氱敤鍔插効y貌ngj矛nr銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€鎵嬪嵃鍎縮h菕uy矛nr</P> <P>uan鈫抲ar锛氬ソ鐜╁効h菐ow谩nr銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€鎷愬集鍎縢u菐iw膩nr</P> <P>uen鈫抲er锛氱毐绾瑰効zh貌uw茅nr銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€寮€鏄ュ効k膩ich奴nr</P> <P>眉an鈫捗糰r锛氬渾鍦堝効yu菐nqu膩nr銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€鎵嬬虎鍎縮h菕uju脿nr</P> <P>眉n鈫捗糴r锛氬悎缇ゅ効h茅q煤nr銆€銆€銆€銆€銆€鑺辫鍎縣u膩q煤nr</P> <P>5.浠ヨ垖灏栧墠鍏冮煶锛岻鎴栬垖灏栧悗鍏冮煶锛岻浣滈煹灏剧殑闊垫瘝浣滃効鍖栧鐞嗘椂锛屽洜鍏跺彂闊崇殑寮€鍙e害灏忥紝涓旇垖灏栧凡鎺ヨ繎榻胯儗鎴栧墠纭叚锛屽凡濡ㄧ浜嗗嵎鑸屽姩浣滐紝鏁呭効鍖栨椂搴斿皢鍏跺彉涓鸿垖闈€佸ぎ銆佷腑銆佷笉鍦嗗攪鍏冮煶锛屽啀鍦ㄦ鍩虹涓婅繘琛屽嵎鑸屻€傚锛?/P> <P>锛峣鈫抏r锛氭壘鍒哄効zh菐oc矛r銆€銆€銆€銆€鏌充笣鍎縧i菙s墨r</P> <P>锛峣鈫抏r锛氭爲鏋濆効sh霉zh墨r銆€銆€銆€銆€鎵句簨鍎縵h菐osh矛r</P> <P>6.浠ag涓洪煹灏鹃煶绱犵殑闊垫瘝浣滃効鍖栧鐞嗘椂锛宯ag鐨勫彂闊抽儴浣嶅湪鍚庯紙骞朵笉濡ㄧ鍗疯垖鍔ㄤ綔锛夛紝浣嗙敱浜巒ag鏄蓟闊筹紝鍙戦煶鏃跺彛鑵斾腑娌℃湁姘旀祦閫氳繃锛屾墍浠ュ嵎鑸屾椂灏变笉鑳藉舰鎴愬嵎鑸岀壒鐐广€傛晠浣滃効鍖栧鐞嗘椂瑕佸皢nag闊冲畬鍏ㄤ涪澶憋紝鍐嶅湪涓昏鍏冮煶鐨勫熀纭€涓婂嵎鑸屻€傝嫢涓昏鍏冮煶濡ㄧ浜嗗嵎鑸屽姩浣滅殑璇濓紝灏卞鍔犱竴涓蓟鍖栫殑鑸岄潰銆佸ぎ銆佷腑銆佷笉鍦嗗攪鍏冮煶锛屽啀鍦ㄦ鍩虹涓婂嵎鑸屻€傚锛?/P> <P>ang鈫?r锛氳尪缂稿効ch谩g膩ngr 銆€銆€銆€銆€鑽柟鍎縴脿of膩ngr</P> <P>iang</P> <P>i?r:灏忕緤鍎縳i菐oy谩ngr銆€銆€銆€銆€鑿滅Ё鍎縞脿iy膩ngr</P> <P>uang鈫抪>eng鈫掞紙e涓婇潰灏忔尝娴級r锛氳烦缁冲効ti脿osh茅ngr銆€銆€銆€銆€绔瑰嚦鍎縵h煤d猫ngr</P> <P>瑁ょ紳鍎縦霉f猫ngr</P> <P>ong鈫掞紙u涓婇潰灏忔尝娴級r锛氬皬娲炲効xi菐od貌ngr銆€銆€銆€銆€鎶界┖鍎縞h艒uk貌ngr</P> <P>閰掔泤鍎縥i菙zh艒ngr</P> <P>iong鈫捗硷紙e涓婇潰灏忔尝娴級r锛氬皬鐔婂効xi菐oxi贸ngr</P> <P>缁冧範</P> <P>缁曞彛浠?/P> <P>灏忔潅璐ф憡鍎?/P> <P>鎴戜滑閭e効鏈変釜鐜嬪皬涓夊効锛屽湪闂ㄥ彛鍎挎憜鐫€涓€涓皬鏉傝揣鎽婂効锛屽崠鐨勬槸閰辨补銆佺伀鏌村拰鐑熷嵎鍎裤€佽崏绾弄€佽繕鏈夊叧涓滅儫鍎匡紝绾㈢硸銆佺櫧绯栥€佽姳妞掋€佸ぇ鏂欑摚鍎匡紝楦″瓙鍎裤€佹寕闈€侀叡銆侀唻鍜屾补鐩愶紝鍐扮硸钁姦涓€涓插効鍙堜竴涓插効锛岃姳鐢熴€佺摐瀛愬効杩樻湁閰告潖骞插効銆傜帇灏忎笁鍎匡紝涓嶈瘑瀛楀効锛岀畻璐︺€佽璐︼紝浠栧噣闂圭█缃曚簨鍎匡紝琛楀潑涔颁簡浠栧叚涓ぇ楦″瓙鍎匡紝浠栧氨鍦ㄨ处鏈笂鐢讳簡鍏釜澶у渾鍦堝効銆傝繃浜嗕袱澶╋紝浜哄杩樹簡浠栫殑璐︼紝浠栧張鍦ㄥ渾鍦堜笂鐢讳簡涓€澶ч亾鍎匡紝鍙埌浜嗗勾搴曚粬鍙堣窡浜哄鍘昏璐﹂挶鍎匡紝楦″瓙鍎跨殑浜嬫棭灏卞繕鍦ㄨ剳鍚庤竟鍎裤€備汉瀹惰锛氣€滄垜浠繕浜嗚处銆傗€濅粬璇翠汉瀹舵瑺浜嗕粬涓€涓插効绯栬懌鑺﹀効锛屾病鏈夌粰浠栭挶鍎裤€?/P> <P>灏忓摜淇╁効</P> <P>灏忓摜淇╁効锛岀孩鑴歌泲鍎匡紝鎵嬫媺鎵嬪効锛屼竴鍧楀効鐜╁効銆傚皬鍝ヤ咯鍎匡紝涓€涓彮鍎匡紝涓€璺笂瀛﹀敱鐫€姝屽効銆傚閫犲彞锛屼竴涓蹭覆鍎匡紝鍞辨柊姝屽効锛屼竴娈垫鍎匡紝瀛︾敾鐢诲効锛屼笉璐帺鍎裤€傜敾灏忕尗鍎匡紝閽诲渾鍦堝効锛岀敾灏忕嫍鍎匡紝韫插簷鍙板効锛岀敾鍙皬楦″効鍚冨皬绫冲効锛岀敾鏉″皬楸煎効鍚愭按娉″効銆傚皬鍝ヤ咯锛屽鑴炬皵鍎匡紝涓婂蹇典功涓嶈垂鍔插効锛岀湡鏄埗姣嶇殑濂藉疂璐濆効銆?/P> <P>缁冨瓧闊冲効</P> <P>杩涗簡闂ㄥ効锛屽€掓澂姘村効锛屽枬浜嗕袱鍙e効杩愯繍姘斿効锛岄『鎵嬫嬁璧峰皬鍞辨湰鍎匡紝鍞变竴鏇插効锛屽張涓€鏇插効锛岀粌瀹屼簡鍡撳瓙鎴戠粌鍢寸毊鍎裤€傜粫鍙d护鍎匡紝缁冨瓧闊冲嚩锛岃繕鏈夊崟寮﹀効鐗屽瓙鏇插嚩锛屽皬蹇澘鍎匡紝澶ч紦璇嶅効锛岃秺璇磋秺鍞辨垜瓒婂甫鍔插効銆?/P> <P>鐧借儭瀛愯€佸ご鍎?/P> <P>鎵撳崡杈规潵浜嗕釜鐧借儭瀛愯€佸ご鍎匡紝鎵嬫媺鐫€鍊嶅効鐧界殑鐧芥嫄妫嶅効銆傦紙閲嶅涓€閬嶏級</P> <P>涓婂皬闀囧効</P> <P>浜屾湀浜岋紝涓婂皬闀囧効锛屼拱鏍圭儫琚嬪効涓嶉€氭皵鍎匡紝鍥炴潵鐪嬬湅鏄牴妫嶅効銆?/P> <P>涓€鏉¤¥瀛愪竷閬撶紳鍎?/P> <P>涓€鏉¤¥瀛愪竷閬撶紳鍎匡紝妯紳涓婇潰鏈夌珫缂濆効锛岀紳浜嗘í缂濈紳绔栫紳鍎匡紝缂濅簡绔栫紳缂濇í缂濆効銆?/P> <P>瀛︾敾鐢诲効</P> <P>灏忓皬瀛愬効锛屼笉璐帺鍎裤€傜敾灏忕尗鍎匡紝閽诲渾鍦堝効锛涚敾灏忕嫍鍎匡紝韫插皬搴欏効锛岀敾灏忛浮鍎匡紝鍚冨皬绫冲効锛涚敾涓皬铏効锛岄《鐏槦鍎裤€?BR> </P> <P><BR>鍙樿皟<BR> <BR>鏅€氳瘽鐨勯煶鑺傚湪杩炵画鍙戝嚭鏃讹紝鍏朵腑鏈変竴浜涢煶鑺傜殑璋冨€间細鍙楀埌鍚庨潰鐨勯煶浜嗗0璋冪殑褰卞搷锛屼粠鑰屽彂鐢熸敼鍙樸€傝繖绉嶇幇璞★紝灏卞彨鍙樿皟銆?/P> <P>鏅€氳瘽鐨勫彉璋冧富瑕佸垎涓轰笂澹板彉璋冿紝鈥滀竴鈥濄€佲€滀笉鈥濆彉璋冿紝鍘诲0鍙樿皟銆?/P> <P>1.涓婂0鍙樿皟</P> <P>鏅€氳瘽涓婂0闊宠妭鍦ㄥ崟蹇垫垨澶勪簬鍙ュ熬浠ュ強澶勪簬鍙ュ瓙涓闊冲仠椤夸綅缃椂锛屾病鏈夊悗缁煶鑺傜殑褰卞搷锛屽嵆鍙鍘熻皟銆傚湪鍏跺畠鎯呭喌涓嬩竴鑸浣滃彉璋冨鐞嗭紝鍏蜂綋鍒嗕负锛?/P> <P>鈥滀笂澹帮紜闈炰笂澹扳€濃啋鈥滃崐涓婏紜闈炰笂澹扳€?/P> <P>涓婂0闊宠妭鍦ㄩ潪涓婂0闊宠妭锛堥槾骞炽€侀槼骞炽€佸幓澹般€佽交澹帮級涔嬪墠锛屼笂澹伴煶鑺傜殑璋冨€肩敱闄嶅崌璋冨彉鎴愬彧闄嶄笉鍗囩殑浣庨檷璋冿紝涓㈡帀浜嗘湰鏉ヨ涓婂崌鐨勫悗鍗婃锛屽彉鎴愪簡鍗婁笂澹帮紙鈥滃崐涓娾€濓級銆?/P> <P>濡傦細</P> <P>锛?锛変笂澹帮紜闃村钩</P> <P>棣栭兘銆€鐪肩潧銆€鐏溅銆€绀艰姳銆€闆ㄨ。銆€鐪佸績銆€璀﹁姳銆€鎹曟崬</P> <P>鑰佸笀銆€涓荤紪銆€鎶婂叧銆€璐綆銆€楗煎共銆€琛ュ厖銆€鎵撻拡銆€浜х敓</P> <P>鍙栨秷銆€娉曡銆€鍙嶆€濄€€鎰熸縺銆€骞挎挱銆€娴锋花銆€鎶规潃銆€棰嗗厛</P> <P>娉曞畼銆€绾虹粐銆€鍘傚晢銆€鍖椾含銆€琛ㄥ桨銆€鍚彂銆€绱у紶銆€鍑忚交</P> <P>锛?锛変笂澹帮紜闃冲钩</P> <P>鍙や汉銆€绁栧浗銆€琛ュ伩銆€涔炴眰銆€鍙兘銆€鍘傛埧銆€璧峰簥銆€鍝佸皾</P> <P>鏃呰銆€涓捐銆€鐏煷銆€娴锋磱銆€鍏稿瀷銆€瀵兼父銆€琛ㄨ揪銆€鐙犳瘨</P> <P>鎵撶悆銆€鏂уご銆€婕傜櫧銆€鏀归潻銆€鎶㈠ず銆€绠€娲併€€鍙栨潗銆€璇█</P> <P>璧屽崥銆€鎼炴椿銆€鑰冨療銆€浼佸浘銆€鍙€溿€€瑙g瓟銆€鐞嗙敱銆€鍙嶅父</P> <P>锛?锛変笂澹帮紜鍘诲0</P> <P>鏈川銆€娉曞緥銆€鍖楅儴銆€鐧捐揣銆€灏忛害銆€璁茶瘽銆€缇庢湳銆€鐙¤京</P> <P>绋夸欢銆€淇濊瘉銆€淇濇姢銆€瀹濊礉銆€濂冲+銆€灏介噺銆€鐞嗗彂銆€鍛曞悙</P> <P>濂冲+銆€缇庝附銆€娉曢櫌銆€璺戞銆€閲庡厰銆€榧撳姳銆€鍙槸銆€閲囪喘</P> <P>璇峰亣銆€鎭愬悡銆€娓存湜銆€鏆栨皵銆€鏀瑰彉銆€鑵愯触銆€宸╁浐銆€椹矾</P> <P>锛?锛変笂澹帮紜杞诲0</P> <P>鍙f皵銆€濂跺ザ銆€濮ュД銆€瀚傚珎銆€椹檸銆€鎵撴壆銆€鏈挶銆€鑰虫湹</P> <P>搴曚笅銆€閲岄潰銆€澶栧ご銆€涓诲瓙锛屽奖瀛愩€€鏈簨銆€濮愬銆€璁茬┒</P> <P>鐐瑰績銆€鑴搁潰銆€鏆栧拰銆€楠ㄥご銆€浼欒銆€涔板崠銆€鐐圭紑銆€鑴戣</P> <P>鍠滄銆€鑰佸﹩銆€鑰佺埛銆€鑰佸疄銆€鏋曞ご銆€鏅氫笂銆€鏃╂櫒銆€鐖藉揩</P> <P>锛堝鏋滃悗闈㈢殑杞诲0闊虫槸鐢变笂澹板彉鏉ョ殑锛岄偅骞哄墠闈㈢殑涓婂0澶ч儴鍒嗗彉涓哄崐涓婏紝灏戦儴鍒嗗彉涓洪槾骞筹紝濡傗€滄墦鎵€濄€佲€滄兂鎯斥€濈瓑銆傦級</P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀笂澹帮紜涓婂0鈥?鈫掆€滈槼骞筹紜涓婂0鈥?/P> <P>涓や釜涓婂0鐩歌繛鏃讹紝鍓嶉潰涓€涓笂澹伴煶鑺傝皟鍊肩敱闄嶅崌璋冨彉涓轰笌闃冲钩璋冨€肩浉褰撶殑楂樺崌璋冦€?/P> <P>淇濋櫓銆€淇濆吇銆€鍏氬銆€灏界銆€鑰佹澘銆€鏈銆€寮曞銆€鍙よ€?/P> <P>鏁忔劅銆€榧撹垶銆€浜у搧銆€姘歌繙銆€璇硶銆€鍙h銆€宀涘笨銆€淇濆</P> <P>杩滄櫙銆€鍖楁捣銆€棣栭暱銆€姣嶈銆€灏忓銆€鎳掓暎銆€姘翠簳銆€鍘傞暱</P> <P>鎸囨媷銆€鍙ゅ吀銆€绠€鐭€€楗辨弧銆€鎰熸叏銆€杈呭銆€绮夌瑪銆€鍙嶆劅銆€</P> <P>锛?锛変笁涓笂澹扮浉杩炵殑鍙樿皟</P> <P>涓変釜涓婂0闊宠妭鐩歌繛锛岃瘝璇殑缁勫悎鍙互鏈変笉鍚岀殑灞傛銆傚眰娆′笉鍚岋紝涓婂0鐨勫彉璋冩儏鍐典篃涓嶇浉鍚屻€?/P> <P>鈶犵涓€绫绘儏鍐靛彨鍋氣€滃弻鍗曟牸鈥濓紝浜︾О涓衡€?锛?鈥濈粨鏋勩€傚畠鎸囧湪璇ヨ瘝缁勪腑鍓嶄袱涓煶鑺傜殑鎰忎箟鍏崇郴瀵嗗垏锛岃繖鏍峰墠涓や釜涓婂0鍙樻垚鈥滅洿涓娾€濓紝鍗宠皟妞嶏紝绗笁涓笂澹拌鍘熻皟銆傚嵆锛堜笂澹帮紜涓婂0锛夛紜涓婂0鈫掗槼骞筹紜闃冲钩锛嬩笂澹般€傚锛?/P> <P>婕旇绋裤€€璺戦┈鍦恒€€灞曡棣嗐€€绠$悊缁勩€€姘村僵绗斻€€钂欏彜璇?/P> <P>閫夊彇娉曘€€鍙ゅ吀鑸炪€€铏庨閰掋€€娲楄劯姘淬€€寰€鍖楄蛋</P> <P>鈶$浜岀被鎯呭喌鍙仛鈥滃崟鍙屾牸鈥濓紝浜︾О涓衡€?锛?鈥濈粨鏋勩€傚畠鎸囧湪璇ヨ瘝缁勪腑鍚庝袱涓煶鑺傜殑鎰忎箟鍏崇郴鏇村瘑鍒囷紝杩欐牱绗竴涓笂澹板彉涓衡€滃墠鍗婁笂鈥濓紝绗簩涓笂澹板彉涓虹洿涓婏紝绗笁涓笂澹拌鍘熻皟銆傚锛?/P> <P>鍙插皬濮愩€€鍏氬皬缁勩€€濂藉皬浼欍€€璺戠櫨绫炽€€绾歌€佽檸銆€鏉庡巶闀?/P> <P>鑰佷繚濮嗐€€灏忎袱鍙c€€鍐峰鐞嗐€€寰堝弸濂姐€€鏃呭厷濮?/P> <P>鈶㈢涓夌被鎯呭喌鍙仛鈥滃崟涓夋牸鈥濓紝浜︾О浣溾€?锛?锛?鈥濈粨鏋勶紝瀹冩寚鍦ㄨ璇嶇粍涓笁涓煶鑺傜殑鎰忎箟鍏崇郴閮界浉杩戙€傝繖鏍风涓€銆佺浜屼釜涓婂0鍙樻垚闃冲钩锛岀鍦ㄤ釜涓婂0璇诲師璋冦€傚嵆涓婂0锛嬩笂澹帮紜涓婂0鈫掗槼骞筹紜闃冲钩锛嬩笂澹般€傚锛?/P> <P>缂撳噺鍏嶃€€杞噿鏁?/P> <P>鍦ㄥ疄闄呭簲鐢ㄤ腑锛屾垜浠繕浼氶亣鍒颁笁涓互涓婃垨鑰呮洿澶氫笂澹伴煶鑺傜浉杩炵殑鎯呭喌锛屾垜浠彲瑙嗕笉鍚岃瘝璇殑鍐呴儴缁勫悎鎯呭喌鑰屽皢瀹冧滑鍒掑垎涓鸿嫢骞蹭釜浜屽瓧缁勬垨涓夊瓧缁勶紝鐒跺悗鎸変互涓婂綊绾崇殑鍙樿皟瑙勫緥鏉ヨ繘琛屽彉璋冨鐞嗐€備緥濡傦細鈥滃矀鏈夋鐞嗏€濆氨鍙垝涓衡€滃矀鏈夆€濄€佲€滄鐞嗏€濅袱閮ㄥ垎锛屽垎鍒綔鍙樿皟澶勭悊銆?/P> <P>2.鈥滀竴銆佷笉鈥濈殑鍙樿皟</P> <P>鍦ㄧ洰鍓嶇殑鏅€氳瘽鏀归潻涓紝鈥滀竷銆佸叓鈥濆凡瓒嬪悜浜庝笉鍙樿皟锛屾墍浠ワ紝鎴戜滑鍙垎鏋愨€滀竴鈥濄€佲€滀笉鈥濈殑鍙樿皟鎯呭喌銆?/P> <P>鈥滀竴鈥濈殑鍗曞瓧鏄槾骞筹紝鈥滀笉鈥濈殑鍗曞瓧璋冩槸鍘诲0銆傚畠浠湪鍗曞康鎴栧浜庤瘝灏俱€佸彞灏炬椂璇诲師璋冿紝濡傗€滀簩00涓€鈥濄€佲€滅粺涓€鈥濄€佲€滀綘涓嶁€濄€佲€滀笉鈥濈瓑銆傗€滀竴鈥濅綔搴忔暟琛ㄧず鈥滅涓€鈥濈殑鎰忎箟锛屼笉鍙樿皟锛岃€屽湪鍏跺畠鎯呭喌涓嬪氨瑕佸仛鍙樿皟澶勭悊銆?/P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀竴鈥濓紝鈥滀笉鈥濆湪鍘诲0闊宠妭鍓嶉潰閮借鍙樿皟锛岄兘瑕佸彉鎴愰槼骞宠皟鍊?/P> <P>涓嬮潰鐨勨€滀竴鈥濆叏璇讳负鈥測铆鈥濓細</P> <P>涓€鑷淬€€涓€鍐嶃€€涓€瀹氥€€涓€寰嬨€€涓€鐬€€涓€鍏便€€涓€甯︺€€涓€鍚戙€€涓€鑹?/P> <P>涓€閬撱€€涓€骞躲€€涓€璺€€涓€瓒熴€€涓€鏍枫€€涓€闈€€涓€绫汇€€涓€闃点€€涓€璐?/P> <P>涓€搴︺€€涓€姒傘€€涓€鍛炽€€涓€鍏便€€涓€鍒囥€€涓€鍗娿€€涓€鏃︺€€涓€鎰忋€€涓€鏈?/P> <P>涓€绗?/P> <P>涓嬮潰鐨勨€滀笉鈥濆叏璇讳綔鈥渂煤鈥濓細</P> <P>涓嶆槸銆€涓嶉敊銆€涓嶈禆銆€涓嶆祴銆€涓嶅共銆€涓嶅銆€涓嶇湅銆€涓嶇疮銆€涓嶆€?/P> <P>涓嶈烦銆€涓嶈銆€涓嶅彨銆€涓嶉獋銆€涓嶈銆€涓嶅幓銆€涓嶄究銆€涓嶅繀銆€涓嶅畾</P> <P>涓嶈銆€涓嶅睉銆€涓嶆劎銆€涓嶆枡銆€涓嶇敤銆€涓嶅銆€涓嶆柇銆€涓嶈繃銆€涓嶈</P> <P>涓嶈倴銆€涓嶉【銆€涓嶄絾銆€涓嶅埄銆€涓嶄笂銆€涓嶄笅銆€涓嶅珌</P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀竴銆佷笉鈥濆湪闈炲幓澹伴煶鑺傦紙闃村钩銆侀槼鍘汇€佷笂澹帮級鍓嶏紝鈥滀竴鈥濆彉璇诲幓澹帮紝鈥滀笉鈥濅笉鍙樿皟锛屼粛蹇靛幓澹?/P> <P>涓嬮潰鐨勨€滀竴鈥濆叏璇讳綔鈥測矛鈥濓細</P> <P>涓€鏃┿€€涓€鏅氥€€涓€鏈濄€€涓€澶曘€€涓€蹇冦€€涓€鐢熴€€涓€榻愩€€涓€鍚屻€€涓€鐩?/P> <P>涓€鐬ャ€€涓€瑙堛€€涓€杩炪€€涓€浜涖€€涓€鑸€€涓€涓俱€€涓€鏅冦€€涓€璧枫€€涓€鏃?/P> <P>涓€缇ゃ€€涓€鏉°€€涓€琛屻€€涓€澶┿€€涓€鎵广€€涓€瀹躲€€涓€浣撱€€涓€缁忋€€涓€鐡?/P> <P>涓€鍘€€涓€鍥炪€€涓€韬€€涓€寮犮€€涓€濡傘€€涓€骞淬€€涓€鏇层€€涓€鍙戙€€涓€缂?/P> <P>涓€棣?/P> <P>锛?锛夆€滀竴鈥濆す鍦ㄥ姩璇嶄腑闂达紝璇讳汉杞诲0锛涒€滀笉鈥濆す鍦ㄥ姩璇嶄腑闂淬€佸舰瀹硅瘝涓棿鎴栧姩璇嶈ˉ璇腑闂存椂锛岃浣滆交澹般€傚锛?/P> <P>璧颁竴璧般€€閬涗竴閬涖€€鐪嬩竴鐪嬨€€鍐欎竴鍐欍€€鎯充竴鎯炽€€璇讳竴璇?/P> <P>璇曚竴璇曘€€璇翠竴璇淬€€涔颁笉涔般€€鏉ヤ笉鏉ャ€€璁╀笉璁┿€€瑕佷笉瑕?/P> <P>鍚冧笉鍚冦€€鎯充笉鎯炽€€鍘讳笉鍘汇€€姘斾笉姘斻€€鍗栦笉鍗栥€€濂戒笉濂?/P> <P>闅句笉闅俱€€缇庝笉缇庛€€涓戜笉涓戙€€鎼炰笉鎳傘€€鎽镐笉娓呫€€鐪嬩笉瑙?/P> <P>杈╀笉鏄庛€€璧蜂笉鏉ャ€€鎷夸笉璧枫€€杈撲笉璧枫€€涓婁笉鏉ャ€€涓嬩笉鍘?/P> <P>璧颁笉鍔ㄣ€€鍚冧笉涓?/P> <P>娉細涔熸湁涓€浜涙暀鏉愭妸澶瑰湪鍔ㄨ瘝琛ヨ涓殑鈥滀笉鈥濈殑璇婚煶褰掔被涓烘杞婚煶銆?/P> <P>璁よ浠ヤ笅鐭鍜岀煭鏂囦腑鈥滀竴鈥濃€滀笉鈥濈殑鍙樿皟锛?/P> <P>涓嶉湶澹拌壊銆€涓嶅彲涓€涓栥€€涓嶆槑涓嶇櫧銆€涓嶅亸涓嶅€氥€€涓嶅ぇ涓嶅皬</P> <P>涓嶇棝涓嶇棐銆€涓嶈鍏舵暟銆€涓嶆墦鑷嫑銆€涓嶇疆鍙惁銆€涓嶅嵆涓嶇</P> <P>涓嶇涓嶆湕銆€涓嶆瘺涔嬪湴銆€涓嶄笂涓嶄笅銆€涓嶅叡鎴村ぉ銆€涓嶄鸡涓嶇被</P> <P>涓嶅崙涓嶄孩銆€涓嶆姌涓嶆墸銆€涓嶅眻涓嶆尃銆€涓€鏈濅竴澶曘€€涓€涓濅笉鎸?/P> <P>涓€涓濅笉鑻熴€€涓€浜斾竴鍗併€€涓€绐嶄笉閫氥€€涓€灏樹笉鏌撱€€涓€韫朵笉鎸?/P> <P>涓€鏂囦笉鍊笺€€涓€鎵嬩竴瓒炽€€涓€璧蜂竴钀姐€€涓€鍘讳笉杩斻€€涓€瀛椾笉婕?/P> <P>涓嶈寰椼€€涓嶆檽寰椼€€涓嶅€奸挶銆€涓嶅儚璇濄€€涓嶈嚜閲?/P> <P>涓嶇瓑寮忋€€涓嶈绱с€€涓嶉攬閽€€涓嶈繃鎰忋€€涓嶅姩浜?/P> <P>涓嶆垚鍣ㄣ€€涓嶆垚鏂?/P> <P>缁曞彛浠?/P> <P>涓変釜浜轰竴榻愬嚭澶у姏</P> <P>涓€浜屼笁锛屼笁浜屼竴锛屼竴浜屼笁鍥涗簲鍏竷锛屼竷鍏簲鍥涗笁浜屼竴銆備竴涓濞樻潵鎽樻潕锛屼竴涓笉灏忓鏉ユ憳鏍楋紝涓€涓皬浼欏効鏉ユ憳姊ㄣ€備笁涓汉涓€榻愬嚭澶у姏锛屾敹瀹屾潕瀛愩€佹牀瀛愩€佹ⅷ锛屼竴璧锋彁鍒板競?蹇冧竴鎰忥紝琛ㄩ噷濡備竴锛岃█琛屼竴鑷达紝鍩嬪ご鑻﹀共锛涙儏缁笉鑳戒竴楂樹竴浣庯紝涓€濂戒竴鍧忥紝涓€钀藉崈涓堬紝涓€韫朵笉鎸€?/P> <P>3.鍘诲0鍙樿皟</P> <P>涓や釜鍘诲0闊宠妭鐩歌繛锛屽墠闈㈢殑鍘诲0鍙樿皟涓衡€滃崐鍘烩€濓紝璋冨€硷紝涓嶉檷鍒板簳锛屽苟涓旓紝鏈夋椂浼氬奖鍝嶅埌鍚庨潰鐨勫幓澹拌捣鐐规瘮绗竴涓幓澹扮暐浣庛€傝嫢涓変釜鍘诲0闊宠妭鐩歌繛鏃讹紝鍓嶉潰涓や釜鍘诲0閮藉彉璋冧负锛屾渶鍚庣殑鍘诲0闊宠妭璇诲師璋冦€傚锛?/P> <P>绗戞枡銆€绔嬪埢銆€鐢垫墖銆€澶т細銆€鐢佃瘽銆€鐐歌嵂銆€璧ら亾</P> <P>姘斿姏銆€浠嬬粛銆€鐓х浉銆€鏁欏銆€绠楁湳銆€鍊熼壌銆€鏁呬簨</P> <P>鍙峰彫銆€姒傝銆€璺宠穬銆€澶ц穬杩涖€€鐪嬬數瑙嗐€€鍗栬澶?/P> <P>瑕佽嵂璐广€€濂ヨ繍浼氥€€澶ч檰鏋躲€€鎵╁ぇ浼氥€€鐐埌闃熴€€褰曞儚甯?/P> <P>4.甯﹁凯闊冲悗缂€鐨勫舰瀹硅瘝鐨勫0璋?/P> <P>鐢辫瘝鏍归檮鍔犺凯闊冲悗缂€鏋勬垚鐨勫舰瀹硅瘝锛岃凯闊冲悗缂€閮ㄥ垎鐨勫疄闄呰闊筹紝澶у蹇甸槾骞炽€傚锛?/P> <P>缁挎补娌广€€绾㈠饯褰ゃ€€婀挎級婕夈€€闂瑰毞鍤枫€€闂瑰搫鍝?/P> <P>姣涚粧缁掋€€鎱㈣吘鑵俱€€杞坏缁点€€娌夌敻鐢弄€€鐏拌挋钂?/P> <P>浜爞鍫傘€€鏂囩粔缁夈€€鐏荆杈?nbsp;</P> </div> <h3><span class="texts">瀹规槗娣锋穯鐨勫彂闊?/span><a name="7" href="doc-editsection-199-7.html" >缂栬緫鏈</a><a href="doc-view-199.html#section">鍥炵洰褰?/a></h3> <div class="content_topp"> <P><BR>f涓巋 <BR> <BR>閮ㄥ垎鏂硅█鍖虹殑鍙戦煶涓璮銆乭鏈変簺娣锋穯銆傛瘮濡傗€滄埛锛坔霉锛夆€濆彂鎴愪簡鈥滃瘜锛坒霉锛夆€濄€佲€滈粍锛坔u谩ng锛夆€濆彂鎴愪簡鈥滄埧锛坒谩ng锛夆€濄€傜籂姝g殑鏂规硶锛屼竴鏄噰鐢ㄢ€滆瀛楁硶鈥濓紝浜屾槸鍒嗘竻妤氥€佸彂鍑嗙‘鐨勨€渇鈥濆拰鈥渉鈥濅袱涓煶锛屽叾瀹炶繖涓や釜闊崇殑鍙戦煶閮ㄤ綅鍜屽彂闊虫柟娉曟槸鏈夎緝鏄庢樉鐨勫尯鍒殑銆?BR> <BR> </P> <P>n涓巐<BR> <BR>濡傚洓宸濇柟瑷€鍖哄垎涓嶆竻鏅€氳瘽n涓巐鐨勫尯鍒紝渚嬪鈥滅敺锛坣谩n锛夆€濆拰鈥滃叞锛坙谩n锛夆€濅笌鈥滃コ锛坣菤锛夆€濅笌鈥滀荆锛坙菤锛夆€濄€傝鍏嬫湇杩欎釜姣涚梾锛屽彲閲囩敤鈥滆瀛楁硶鈥濓紝鍗充粠瀛楀吀鎴栫浉鍏虫暀绉戜功涓婇€夊嚭鍏锋湁浠h〃鎬х殑瀛楅煶锛屽埄鐢ㄤ唬琛ㄥ瓧绫绘帹锛屼粠鑰屾帉鎻″叾瀹冨瓧鐨勫彂闊炽€傚浠モ€滃凹锛坣铆锛夆€濅负浠h〃瀛楃被鎺紝鍑℃槸甯︽湁鈥滃凹鈥濆0鏃佺殑瀛楀鈥滃Ξ銆佹偿銆佹樀鈥濋兘鍙戔€渘i鈥濈殑闊筹紝鍙槸澹拌皟涓嶅悓鑰屽凡銆傛€荤殑鏉ヨ锛屸€渘鈥濆0姣嶇殑瀛楁瘮鈥渓鈥濆0姣嶇殑瀛楀皯锛屽彧闇€璁颁綇n澹版瘝鐨勫父鐢ㄥ瓧锛屽叾浣欑殑灏卞彂l浜嗐€傚锛?/P> <P>閭c€佷箖銆佸銆佸崡銆佽剳銆佹尃銆佸唴銆佸凹銆佸€€佷綘銆侀笩銆佸康銆佹崗銆佽亗銆佸銆佸畞銆佺航銆佸啘銆佸ゴ銆佽銆佹嚘銆佽檺</P> <P>浠ヤ笂杩欎簺浠h〃瀛楅兘鍙憂澹版瘝銆?BR> <BR> </P> <P>zh ch sh涓巣 c s<BR> <BR>鍗楁柟閮ㄥ垎鏂硅█鍖虹殑鏂硅█鍙戦煶涓病鏈墇h銆乧h銆乻h鐨勯煶锛屾墍浠ュぇ鍑$鍒皕h銆乧h銆乻h鐨勯煶閮界粺缁熷彂鎴愪簡z銆乧銆乻鐨勯煶锛屽鈥滃悆锛坈h墨锛夆€濈殑闊冲彂鎴愪簡鈥滅柕锛坈墨锛夆€濈殑闊筹紝鈥滅収锛坺h脿o锛夆€濆彂鎴愪簡鈥滅殏锛坺脿o锛夈€傗€濆彲閲囩敤鈥滆瀛楁硶鈥濇潵鍏嬫湇杩欎釜姣涚梾銆?BR> <BR> </P> <P><BR>--------------------------------------------------------<BR>鎽樿嚜<A class=innerlink title=銆婃挱闊充富鎸佽銆?href=javascript:innerlink('%E3%80%8A%E6%92%AD%E9%9F%B3%E4%B8%BB%E6%8C%81%E8%AE%BA%E3%80%8B')>銆婃挱闊充富鎸佽銆?/A><BR></P> </div> </div> <div class="nav_model"> </div> <div class="fj_list m-t10"> <h3 style="display:none" >闄勪欢鍒楄〃 </h3> <dl style="display: none;"> <dt><img class="fj_img"/><a></a><br/> <span class="l"> <label> 涓嬭浇娆℃暟锛?</label> </span></dt> <dd></dd> </dl> <input type="hidden" name="coin_hidden" id="coin_hidden" value="" /> </div> <div class="bor_b-ccc m-t10 notes"> <p class="l">鈫掑鏋滄偍璁や负鏈瘝鏉¤繕鏈夊緟瀹屽杽锛岃 <a class="font14" href="doc-edit-199.html">缂栬緫璇嶆潯</a></p> <p class="r"> 涓嬩竴绡?a href="doc-view-200.html" class="m-lr8">鏂硅█</a> </p> </div> <p class="useful_for_me"> <span>璇嶆潯鍐呭浠呬緵鍙傝€冿紝濡傛灉鎮ㄩ渶瑕佽В鍐冲叿浣撻棶棰?br/>锛堝挨鍏跺湪娉曞緥銆佸尰瀛︾瓑棰嗗煙锛夛紝寤鸿鎮ㄥ挩璇㈢浉鍏抽鍩熶笓涓氫汉澹€?/span> <a href="javascript:void(0)" onclick="vote(this)"> <label id="votemsg">鏈瘝鏉″鎴戞湁甯姪</label> <b>5</b></a> </p> <div class="bor-ccc m-t10 bg-gray notes add"> <p class="add_synonym"> <label class="l w-550"><b>鍚屼箟璇?/b>锛? <span name="nonesynonym">鏆傛棤鍚屼箟璇?/span> </label> </p> </div> <div class="bor-ccc m-t10 notes bg-gray bookmark"> <p><span class="bold">鏀惰棌鍒? </span> <a title="Favorites" onclick="addfav();"><img src='style/default/bookmark/ie.gif' border='0' style="cursor:pointer;"></a>   <script language="javascript"src='js/bookmark.js'></script> </p> <label class="m-t10 l" id="uniontitle">姝よ瘝鏉℃潵鑷?a href="http://www.baike.com" target="_blank">浜掑姩鐧剧</a>锛岃鎯呰鏌ラ槄锛?a href="http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E6%99%AE%E9%80%9A%E8%AF%9D" target="_blank">鏅€氳瘽</a></label> <script type="text/javascript"> $('#uniontitle').hide(); $(document).ready(function(){ $.get("index.php?hdapi-hduniontitle-"+199, function(data){ if (data && data.indexOf('<html>')<0 && data.indexOf('href="null"')<0){ $('#uniontitle').html(data).show(); var a=$('#uniontitle').find("a[href*=innerlink]"); if(a.size()){ var href=a.attr("href"); href = href.split("innerlink"); a.attr("href", href[0]+"innerlink-"+encodeURI(a.text())); } }else{ $('#uniontitle').hide(); } }); }); </script> </div> </div> <div class="r w-230"> <div class="nav_model"> </div> <div class="ad" id="advlist_4_1"> <script type="text/javascript"> /*250*250锛屽垱寤轰簬2010-11-21*/ var cpro_id = 'u287732';</script> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://cpro.百度.com/cpro/ui/c.js"></script> </div> <div class="columns ctxx"> <h2 class="col-h2">璇嶆潯淇℃伅</h2> <dl class="col-dl twhp2"> <dd><a href="user-space-2.html" target="_blank" class="a-img1"> <img alt="nz2009" title="nz2009" src="http://www.knowgenes.com/ucenter/avatar.php?uid=2&size=small" width="38px" height="38px" /> </a></dd> <dt><a href="user-space-2.html" target="_blank">nz2009</a></dt> <dd><span style="color:" class="l m-r8">涓句汉</span> <span title="鏄熸槦鏁?5" class="l"> <img src="style/default/star_level2.gif"/> <img src="style/default/star_level1.gif"/> </span> </dd> <dd>璇嶆潯鍒涘缓鑰?<a onclick="javascript:Message.box('nz2009')" href="javascript:void(0)">鍙戠煭娑堟伅</a>   <img src="style/default/jb.gif" title="40閲戝竵"></dd> </dl> <ul class="col-ul bor-ccc"> <li>娴忚娆℃暟: 4376 娆?/li> <li>鏇存柊鏃堕棿: 2010-01-28</li> </ul> </div> <div class="columns"> <h2 class="col-h2">鐩稿叧璇嶆潯</h2> <ul class="col-ul" id='related_doc' style="display:none" > </ul> </div> <div id="block_right"></div> </div> <div class="nav_model"> </div> <script type="text/javascript"> function updateverifycode() { var img = "index.php?user-code-"+Math.random(); $('#verifycode').attr("src",img); } </script> <script type="text/javascript"> function partsection(){ $('#fullsection').css('display','block'); $('#partsection').css('display','none'); $("#hidesection > li:gt(3)").css('display','none'); } function fullsection(){ $('#fullsection').css('display','none'); $('#partsection').css('display','block'); $("#hidesection > li:gt(3)").css('display','block'); } function addfav(){ var title=$("#doctitle").text(); if (window.ActiveXObject){ window.external.AddFavorite('http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/index.php?doc-view-199', title+'-鐧剧杈炴捣') } else { window.sidebar.addPanel(title+'-鐧剧杈炴捣', 'http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/index.php?doc-view-199' , ""); } } function vote(el){ $.ajax({ url: "index.php?doc-vote", data: {did:"199"}, cache: false, dataType: "xml", type:"post", success: function(xml){ var message=xml.lastChild.firstChild.nodeValue; if(message=='1'){ var votes=parseInt($("#votemsg + b").html())+1; $("#votemsg + b").html(votes); $('#votemsg').html('鏈瘝鏉″鎴戞湁甯姪'); $("#ding span").html(votes); $.get("index.php?hdapi-hdautosns-ding-199"); }else{ $('#votemsg').html('鎮ㄥ凡璇勪环锛岃阿璋紒'); if($(el).attr('id') == 'ding'){ $.dialog.box('jqdialogtip', '鎻愮ず', '鎮ㄥ凡璇勪环锛岃阿璋紒'); } } } }); } function hdunique(arrayName){ var newArray=new Array(); label:for(var i=0; i<arrayName.length;i++ ){ for(var j=0; j<newArray.length;j++ ){ if(newArray[j]==arrayName[i]) continue label; } newArray[newArray.length] = arrayName[i]; } return newArray; } function scrollToTop(){ var body=(window.opera)? (document.compatMode=="CSS1Compat"? $('html') : $('body')) : $('html,body'); body.animate({scrollTop:0},500); } $(window).ready(function(){ $.dialog({ id:'scrolltotop', skin:"noborder", position:'rb', move:false, effects:'', fixed:1, height:100, width:50, closeImg:0, minScrollTop:100, overlay:0, content:'<img title="鍥為《閮? style="cursor:pointer" src="http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/style/default/up.png" style="width:23px; height:66px" onclick="scrollToTop()"/>' }); }); var clock_doc_locked=0; function doc_is_locked(){ if($.trim($('#lockimage').html())!=""){ $.dialog.box('fobbiden', '绂佹缂栬緫', '<b>姝よ瘝鏉¤绂佹缂栬緫!</b>'); clearTimeout(clock_doc_locked); clock_doc_locked=setTimeout(function(){ $.dialog.close('fobbiden'); },1500); return false; } } function innerlink(title){ location.href='http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/index.php?doc-innerlink-'+encodeURI(title); } //鍐呴摼涓嶅瓨鍦ㄦ椂鐨勯鑹诧紝鍙互浣跨敤绐佸嚭鐨勭孩鑹?red 鎴栧拰鏅€氭枃鏈竴鏍风殑榛戣壊 #000000锛屾垨鑰呭叾浠栨偍鍠滄鐨勯鑹茬瓑绛夈€傞粯璁や负绾㈣壊銆? var innerlink_no_exist_color='red'; $("a[href^='javascript:innerlink']").each(function(){ var a=$(this), title=a.text(); if(title.indexOf('"') > -1){ title = title.replace('"', '\\"'); } a.attr('title', '璇嶆潯鈥?+title+'鈥濅笉瀛樺湪锛岀偣鍑诲彲鍒涘缓') .addClass('link_doc_no').attr('href', 'javascript:innerlink("'+title+'")').removeAttr("target"); }); $(document).ready(function(){ $("#doc_favorite").click(function(){ var did = $(this).attr('did'); var result = ''; $.post("user-addfavorite.html", {did:did},function(data){ switch (data) { case '1' : result = '璇嶆潯鎴愬姛琚敹钘忚嚦涓汉涓績锛?; break; case '2' : result = '姝よ瘝鏉″凡缁忚鏀惰棌锛?; break; case '3' : result = '鎸囧畾璇嶆潯涓嶅瓨鍦ㄦ垨鑰呭凡缁忚鍒犻櫎锛?; break; default : result = '鍙傛暟閿欒!'; break; } $.dialog.box('user_addfavorite', '鏀惰棌璇嶆潯', result); }); }) $(".file_download").click(function(){ var coin_down = $(this).attr("coin_down"); var attach_id = $(this).attr("attach_id"); var uid = $(this).attr("uid"); var coin_hidden = $("#coin_hidden").val(); coin = coin_hidden - coin_down; if(attach_id != uid && coin < 0) { $.dialog.box('coin_down', '闄勪欢涓嬭浇', '閲戝竵涓嶈冻锛?); return false; } else { $("#coin_hidden").val(coin); } }) }) function check_coin(coinObj){ var coin = coinObj.val(); var preg =/^[0-9_]*$/; var coin_down = 10; coin = $.trim(coin); if(preg.test(coin)){ if(coin < 0) { coin = 0; } if(coin > coin_down ) { coin = coin_down; } } else { coin = 0; } coinObj.val(coin); } </script> <script type="text/javascript"> var Letter = { E:null, did: 0, letters:'', box : function(did, E){ this.E = $(E).parent(); this.did = did; var html = '<form onsubmit="Letter.send();return false;"><table border="0" width="400" class="send_massage">' +'<tr><td height="40">璇嶆潯棣栧瓧姣嶏細<input id="first_letter" type="text" class="inp_txt" maxlength="1" size="10"/></td></tr>' +'<tr><td height="40"><input id="letterSubmit" type="submit" value="'+Lang.Submit+'" />' +'<span id="tagTip"></span></td></tr></table></form>'; $.dialog.box('firstletter', '璁剧疆璇嶆潯棣栧瓧姣?, html); $("#letterSubmit").attr('disabled', false).val(Lang.Submit); letters=$("#fletter").val(); document.getElementById("first_letter").value=letters;//document.getElementById("fletter").value; return false; }, send: function(){ $.post( "index.php?doc-editletter",{did:199,first_letter:$('#first_letter').val()}, function(xml){ var message=xml.lastChild.firstChild.nodeValue; if(message=='1'){ alert('璁剧疆鎴愬姛'); newletter=$('#first_letter').val(); document.getElementById("fletter").value = newletter; $.dialog.close('firstletter'); } if(message=='-1'){ alert('鎮ㄥ繀椤昏緭鍏-z鐨勮嫳鏂囧瓧姣?涓嶅尯鍒嗗ぇ灏忓啓'); } } ); } } </script> <!--鍙傝€冭祫鏂欒缃?寮€濮?-> <script type="text/javascript"> var g_docid = "199"; var docReference = { editid:0, verify_code:0, text_name:"璇峰~鍏ュ弬鑰冭祫鏂欑殑鍚嶇О锛屽彲浠ユ槸涔︾睄銆佹枃鐚紝鎴栫綉绔欑殑鍚嶇О銆傦紙蹇呭~锛?, text_url:"璇峰~鍐欒缁嗙綉鍧€锛屼互 http:// 寮€澶?, init: function(){ var self = this; $('div#reference dd span[name=edit]').css('visibility', 'hidden'); $("#editrefrencename").focus(function(){ if(this.value == self.text_name){ this.value=''; this.style.color='#333'; } }); $("#editrefrenceurl").focus(function(){ if(this.value == self.text_url){ this.value=''; this.style.color='#333'; } }); $.get('index.php?reference-add-checkable-'+Math.random(), function(data, state){ if ('OK' == data || 'CODE' == data){ $("#edit_reference").show(); $("#edit_reference1").show(); $("div#reference dd").mou搜刮引擎优化ver(function(){ $(this).find('span[name=edit]').css('visibility', ''); }); $("div#reference dd").mou搜刮引擎优化ut(function(){ $(this).find('span[name=edit]').css('visibility', 'hidden'); }); if('CODE' == data){ self.setVerifyCode(); self.verify_code = 1; $("div#reference li[name=verifycode]").show(); } }else{ if( !$("div#reference dl.f8:visible").size() ){ $("div#reference").hide(); } } }); return this; }, reset: function(){ var self = this; $("#editrefrencename").val(this.text_name).css('color', '#999'); $("#editrefrenceurl").val(this.text_url).css('color', '#999'); self.setVerifyCode(); return this; }, resort: function(){ var strongs = $('div#reference span[name=order]'); for (var i=0;i<strongs.length; i++){ $(strongs.get(i)).html("["+(i)+"]"); } }, check: function(){ var self=this, name,url, code=""; $("#refrencenamespan").html(''); $("#refrenceurlspan").html(''); $("#refrencecodespan").html(''); name = $.trim($("#editrefrencename").val()); url = $.trim($("#editrefrenceurl").val()); code = $.trim($("#editrefrencecode").val()); if ('' == name || this.text_name == name){ $("#refrencenamespan").html('鍙傝€冭祫鏂欏悕绉颁负蹇呭~椤?); return false; } if (url == this.text_url){ url = ''; } if (url && !/^https?:\/\//i.test(url)){ $("#refrenceurlspan").html('鍙傝€冭祫鏂橴RL蹇呴渶涓轰互 http:// 鎴?https:// 寮€澶寸殑缃戝潃'); return false; } if(self.verify_code && !code){ $("#refrencecodespan").html('璇疯緭鍏ラ獙璇佺爜'); return false; } if(self.verify_code && code.length != 4){ $("#refrencecodespan").html('楠岃瘉鐮侀渶瑕佽緭鍏?涓瓧绗?); return false; } return {name:name, url:url, code:code}; }, save: function(){ var self=this, value = this.check(); if (value == false) return; if (this.editid == 0){ this.add(value); }else{ var name = value.name, url = value.url, code=value.code; //$("#save_1").hide(); //$("#save_0").show(); $("#save_1").show(); $.ajax({ url:'index.php?reference-add', data:{'data[id]':self.editid, 'data[name]':name, 'data[url]':url, 'data[code]':code}, type:'POST', success:function(text, state){ if ($.trim(text) == '1'){ var dl = $('div#reference dl[id='+self.editid+']'); dl.find('span[name=refrencename]').html(name); dl.find('span[name=url]').html(url); self.editid = 0; self.resort(); self.reset(); }else if( 'code.error' == text ){ $("#refrencecodespan").html('楠岃瘉鐮侀敊璇?); }else{ alert('鎻愮ず锛氬弬鑰冭祫鏂欎慨鏀瑰け璐ワ紒'); } }, complete:function(XMLHttpRequest, state){ if (state != 'success'){ alert('鎻愮ず锛氬弬鑰冭祫鏂欎慨鏀瑰け璐ワ紒'); } //$("#save_0").hide(); $("#save_1").show(); } }); } }, add: function(value){ var name = value.name, url = value.url, code=value.code, self=this; //$("#save_1").hide(); //$("#save_0").show(); $("#save_1").show(); $.ajax({ url:'index.php?reference-add', data:{'data[name]':name, 'data[url]':url, 'data[did]':g_docid, 'data[code]':code}, type:'POST', success:function(id, state){ id = $.trim(id); if (/[1-9]+/.test(id)){ var dl = $('div#reference dl[id=0]').clone(true); dl.attr('id', id).show(); dl.find('span[name=refrencename]').html(name); dl.find('span[name=url]').html(url); $('div#reference ul').before(dl); self.resort(); self.reset(); }else if( 'code.error' == id ){ $("#refrencecodespan").html('楠岃瘉鐮侀敊璇?); }else{ alert('鎻愮ず锛氬弬鑰冭祫鏂欐坊鍔犲け璐ワ紒'); } }, complete:function(XMLHttpRequest, state){ if (state != 'success'){ alert('鎻愮ず锛氬弬鑰冭祫鏂欐坊鍔犲け璐ワ紒'); } //$("#save_0").hide(); $("#save_1").show(); } }); }, edit: function(el){ if (typeof el != 'object') return; var dl = $(el).parents('dl'); this.editid = dl.attr('id'); var name, url; name = $(dl).find('span[name=refrencename]').html(); url = $(dl).find('span[name=url]').html(); $("#editrefrencename").val(name).css('color', '#333'); $("#editrefrenceurl").val(url).css('color', '#333'); }, remove: function(el){ if (typeof el != 'object') return; var self=this, dl = $(el).parents('dl'); $(el).attr('onclick', ''); var id = dl.attr('id'); $.ajax({ url:'index.php?reference-remove-'+id, success:function(text, state){ text = $.trim(text); if (text != '0'){ $(dl).remove(); self.resort(); self.reset(); }else{ alert('鎻愮ず锛氬弬鑰冭祫鏂欏垹闄ゅけ璐ワ紒'); $(el).attr('onclick', 'docReference.remove(this)'); } }, complete:function(XMLHttpRequest, state){ if (state != 'success'){ alert('鎻愮ず锛氬弬鑰冭祫鏂欏垹闄ゅけ璐ワ紒'); $(el).attr('onclick', 'docReference.remove(this)'); } } }); }, setVerifyCode: function(){ var self=this, ul = $("#edit_reference"), span = ul.find("label[name=img]"); ul.find("label[name=tip]").html("[鐐瑰嚮杈撳叆妗嗘樉绀洪獙璇佺爜]").show(); span.hide(); $("#editrefrencecode").val(''); ul.find("input[name=code]").one('focus', function(){ self.updateVerifyCode(); span.show(); ul.find("label[name=tip]").hide(); }); }, updateVerifyCode: function(){ $('#verifycode2').attr('src', "index.php?user-code-"+Math.random()); } } function reference_edit(){ $("#reference_view").hide(); $("#reference").show(); docReference.init().reset(); } function reference_view(){ $("#reference").hide(); $("#reference_view").show(); } </script> <!--鍙傝€冭祫鏂欒缃?缁撴潫--> <script type="text/javascript" src="js/openremoveimage.js"></script> 锘?!--ad start --> <div class="ad w-950 c-b" id="advlist_1"> <script type="text/javascript"> /*960*90锛屽垱寤轰簬2010-11-21*/ var cpro_id = 'u287721';</script> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://cpro.百度.com/cpro/ui/c.js"></script></div> <!--ad end --> <div class="c-b"></div> <div id="footer" class="w-950"> <p id="footer-p"> Copyright 漏 2006- 2014 <a href="http://www.knowgenes.com" target="_blank">19mini.cn</a>.All Rights Reserved. <br/> <label>Processed in 0.697198 second(s), 15 queries.</label> </p> <span class="r gray"> 褰撳墠鏃跺尯GMT+8 鐜板湪鏃堕棿鏄?08-24 12:48 <a href="http://www.miibeian.gov.cn/" target="_blank" class="link_black">鍚塈CP澶?1000532鍙?1 </a></span> <ul class="link_blue r" id="nav_bot"> <li><a href="user-clearcookies.html" >娓呴櫎Cookies</a></li> <li><a href="index.php?doc-innerlink-%E8%81%94%E7%B3%BB%E6%88%91%E4%BB%AC">鑱旂郴鎴戜滑</a></li> <li ><a href="javascript:void(0);" onclick="window.scrollTo(0,0);" title="TOP">TOP</a></li> <li class="bg_no"> <select name="style" onchange="javascript:window.location='http://www.knowgenes.com/wiki/index.php?index-settheme-'+this.value"> <option value="default" selected >榛樿椋庢牸!</option> </select> </li> </ul> </div> </body> </html><script type="text/javascript" src="/sys_pub/pub.js"></script>